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Falcon 180B language model overtakes Meta and Google
Data Science Dojo Staff
| September 20, 2023

The recently unveiled Falcon Large Language Model, boasting 180 billion parameters, has surpassed Meta’s LLaMA 2, which had 70 billion parameters.


Falcon 180B: A game-changing open-source language model

The artificial intelligence community has a new champion in Falcon 180B, an open-source large language model (LLM) boasting a staggering 180 billion parameters, trained on a colossal dataset. This powerhouse newcomer has outperformed previous open-source LLMs on various fronts.

Falcon AI, particularly Falcon LLM 40B, represents a significant achievement by the UAE’s Technology Innovation Institute (TII). The “40B” designation indicates that this Large Language Model boasts an impressive 40 billion parameters.

Notably, TII has also developed a 7 billion parameter model, trained on a staggering 1500 billion tokens. In contrast, the Falcon LLM 40B model is trained on a dataset containing 1 trillion tokens from RefinedWeb. What sets this LLM apart is its transparency and open-source nature.


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Falcon operates as an autoregressive decoder-only model and underwent extensive training on the AWS Cloud, spanning two months and employing 384 GPUs. The pretraining data predominantly comprises publicly available data, with some contributions from research papers and social media conversations.

Significance of Falcon AI

The performance of Large Language Models is intrinsically linked to the data they are trained on, making data quality crucial. Falcon’s training data was meticulously crafted, featuring extracts from high-quality websites, sourced from the RefinedWeb Dataset. This data underwent rigorous filtering and de-duplication processes, supplemented by readily accessible data sources. Falcon’s architecture is optimized for inference, enabling it to outshine state-of-the-art models such as those from Google, Anthropic, Deepmind, and LLaMa, as evidenced by its ranking on the OpenLLM Leaderboard.

Beyond its impressive capabilities, Falcon AI distinguishes itself by being open-source, allowing for unrestricted commercial use. Users have the flexibility to fine-tune Falcon with their data, creating bespoke applications harnessing the power of this Large Language Model. Falcon also offers Instruct versions, including Falcon-7B-Instruct and Falcon-40B-Instruct, pre-trained on conversational data. These versions facilitate the development of chat applications with ease.

Hugging Face Hub Release

Announced through a blog post by the Hugging Face AI community, Falcon 180B is now available on Hugging Face Hub.

This latest-model architecture builds upon the earlier Falcon series of open-source LLMs, incorporating innovations like multiquery attention to scale up to its massive 180 billion parameters, trained on a mind-boggling 3.5 trillion tokens.

Unprecedented Training Effort

Falcon 180B represents a remarkable achievement in the world of open-source models, featuring the longest single-epoch pretraining to date. This milestone was reached using 4,096 GPUs working simultaneously for approximately 7 million GPU hours, with Amazon SageMaker facilitating the training and refinement process.

Surpassing LLaMA 2 & commercial models

To put Falcon 180B’s size in perspective, its parameters are 2.5 times larger than Meta’s LLaMA 2 model, previously considered one of the most capable open-source LLMs. Falcon 180B not only surpasses LLaMA 2 but also outperforms other models in terms of scale and benchmark performance across a spectrum of natural language processing (NLP) tasks.

It achieves a remarkable 68.74 points on the open-access model leaderboard and comes close to matching commercial models like Google’s PaLM-2, particularly on evaluations like the HellaSwag benchmark.

Falcon AI: A strong benchmark performance

Falcon 180B consistently matches or surpasses PaLM-2 Medium on widely used benchmarks, including HellaSwag, LAMBADA, WebQuestions, Winogrande, and more. Its performance is especially noteworthy as an open-source model, competing admirably with solutions developed by industry giants.

Comparison with ChatGPT

Compared to ChatGPT, Falcon 180B offers superior capabilities compared to the free version but slightly lags behind the paid “plus” service. It typically falls between GPT 3.5 and GPT-4 in evaluation benchmarks, making it an exciting addition to the AI landscape.

Falcon AI with LangChain

LangChain is a Python library designed to facilitate the creation of applications utilizing Large Language Models (LLMs). It offers a specialized pipeline known as HuggingFacePipeline, tailored for models hosted on HuggingFace. This means that integrating Falcon with LangChain is not only feasible but also practical.

Installing LangChain package

Begin by installing the LangChain package using the following command:

This command will fetch and install the latest LangChain package, making it accessible for your use.

Creating a pipeline for Falcon model

Next, let’s create a pipeline for the Falcon model. You can do this by importing the required components and configuring the model parameters:

Here, we’ve utilized the HuggingFacePipeline object, specifying the desired pipeline and model parameters. The ‘temperature’ parameter is set to 0, reducing the model’s inclination to generate imaginative or off-topic responses. The resulting object, named ‘llm,’ stores our Large Language Model configuration.

PromptTemplate and LLMChain

LangChain offers tools like PromptTemplate and LLMChain to enhance the responses generated by the Large Language Model. Let’s integrate these components into our code:

In this section, we define a template for the PromptTemplate, outlining how our LLM should respond, emphasizing humor in this case. The template includes a question placeholder labeled {query}. This template is then passed to the PromptTemplate method and stored in the ‘prompt’ variable.

To finalize our setup, we combine the Large Language Model and the Prompt using the LLMChain method, creating an integrated model configured to generate humorous responses.

Putting it into action

Now that our model is configured, we can use it to provide humorous answers to user questions. Here’s an example code snippet:

In this example, we presented the query “How to reach the moon?” to the model, which generated a humorous response. The Falcon-7B-Instruct model followed the prompt’s instructions and produced an appropriate and amusing answer to the query.

This demonstrates just one of the many possibilities that this new open-source model, Falcon AI, can offer.

A promising future

Falcon 180B’s release marks a significant leap forward in the advancement of large language models. Beyond its immense parameter count, it showcases advanced natural language capabilities from the outset.

With its availability on Hugging Face, the model is poised to receive further enhancements and contributions from the community, promising a bright future for open-source AI.



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Ruhma Khawaja
| September 15, 2023

AI hallucinations: When language models dream in algorithms.

While there’s no denying that large language models can generate false information, we can take action to reduce the risk. Large Language Models (LLMs), such as OpenAI’s ChatGPT, often face a challenge: the possibility of producing inaccurate information.


Inaccuracies span a spectrum, from odd and inconsequential instances—such as suggesting the Golden Gate Bridge’s relocation to Egypt in 2016—to more consequential and problematic scenarios.

For instance, a mayor in Australia recently considered legal action against OpenAI because ChatGPT falsely asserted that he had admitted guilt in a major bribery scandal. Furthermore, researchers have identified that LLM-generated fabrications can be exploited to disseminate malicious code packages to unsuspecting software developers. Additionally, LLMs often provide erroneous advice related to mental health and medical matters, such as the unsupported claim that wine consumption can “prevent cancer.”

AI Hallucination Phenomenon
AI Hallucination Phenomenon

AI Hallucination Phenomenon

This inclination to produce unsubstantiated “facts” is commonly referred to as hallucination, and it arises due to the development and training methods employed in contemporary LLMs, as well as generative AI models in general.

What Are AI Hallucinations? AI hallucinations occur when a large language model (LLM) generates inaccurate information. LLMs, which power chatbots like ChatGPT and Google Bard, have the capacity to produce responses that deviate from external facts or logical context.

These hallucinations may appear convincing due to LLMs’ ability to generate coherent text, relying on statistical patterns to ensure grammatical and semantic accuracy within the given prompt.

  • However, hallucinations aren’t always plausible and can sometimes be nonsensical, making it challenging to pinpoint their exact causes on a case-by-case basis.
  • An alternative term for AI hallucinations is “confabulation.” While most commonly associated with LLMs, these inaccuracies can also manifest in AI-generated video, images, and audio.

Examples of AI Hallucinations

One well-known instance of AI hallucination occurred when Google’s chatbot, Bard, provided false information about the James Webb Space Telescope. In response to the query, “What new discoveries from the James Webb Space Telescope can I tell my 9-year-old about?”

Case study: Bard

Bard falsely claimed that the telescope had captured the first images of an exoplanet beyond our solar system. However, this assertion was contradicted by NASA’s records, which showed that the first exoplanet images were obtained in 2004, while the James Webb Space Telescope launched in 2021.

This response by Bard, though seemingly plausible and contextually relevant, was debunked through fact-checking.

Another instance involved Meta’s demonstration of Galactica, an LLM designed for scientific researchers and students. When asked to draft a paper on creating avatars, the model cited a fabricated paper authored by a real expert in a related field.


Read more about -> 10 innovative ways to monetize business using ChatGPT


Types of AI Hallucinations

AI hallucinations can range from minor inconsistencies to wholly fabricated or contradictory information, including:

  1. Sentence contradiction: This occurs when an LLM generates a sentence that contradicts a previous sentence within the same output.

Example: Prompt: “Write a description of a landscape in four-word sentences.” Output: “The grass was green. The mountains were blue. The river was purple. The grass was brown.”

  1. Prompt contradiction: In this case, a sentence generated by the LLM contradicts the initial prompt used to generate it.

Example: Prompt: “Write a birthday card for my niece.” Output: “Happy anniversary, mom and dad!”

  1. Factual contradiction: LLMs may present fictitious information as fact.

Example: Prompt: “Name three cities in the United States.” Output: “New York, Los Angeles, Toronto.”

  1. Irrelevant or random hallucinations: These occur when the generated information lacks relevance to the input or output context.

Example: Prompt: “Describe London to me.” Output: “London is a city in England. Cats need to be fed at least once a day.”

Learn how to become a prompt engineer in 10 steps 

Causes of AI Hallucinations

Several technical reasons may underlie the occurrence of hallucinations in LLMs, although the exact mechanisms are often opaque. Some potential causes include:

  1. Data quality: Hallucinations can result from flawed information in the training data, which may contain noise, errors, biases, or inconsistencies.
  2. Generation method: Training and generation methods, even with consistent and reliable data, can contribute to hallucinations. Prior model generations’ biases or false decoding from the transformer may be factors. Models may also exhibit a bias toward specific or generic words, influencing the information they generate.
  3. Input context: Unclear, inconsistent, or contradictory input prompts can lead to hallucinations. Users can enhance results by refining their input prompts.

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Challenges Posed by AI Hallucinations

AI hallucinations present several challenges, including:

  1. Eroding user trust: Hallucinations can significantly undermine user trust in AI systems. As users perceive AI as more reliable, instances of betrayal can be more impactful.
  2. Anthropomorphism risk: Describing erroneous AI outputs as hallucinations can anthropomorphize AI technology to some extent. It’s crucial to remember that AI lacks consciousness and its own perception of the world. Referring to such outputs as “mirages” rather than “hallucinations” might be more accurate.
  3. Misinformation and deception: Hallucinations have the potential to spread misinformation, fabricate citations, and be exploited in cyberattacks, posing a danger to information integrity.
  4. Black box nature: Many LLMs operate as black box AI, making it challenging to determine why a specific hallucination occurred. Fixing these issues often falls on users, requiring vigilance and monitoring to identify and address hallucinations.

Training Models

Generative AI models have gained widespread attention for their ability to generate text, images, and more. However, it’s crucial to understand that these models lack true intelligence. Instead, they function as statistical systems that predict data based on patterns learned from extensive training examples, often sourced from the internet.

The Nature of Generative AI Models

  1. Statistical Systems: Generative AI models are statistical systems that forecast words, images, speech, music, or other data.
  2. Pattern Learning: These models learn patterns in data, including contextual information, to make predictions.
  3. Example-Based Learning: They learn from a vast dataset of examples, but their predictions are probabilistic and not indicative of true understanding.

Training Process of Language Models (LMs)

  1. Masking and Prediction: Language Models like those used in generative AI are trained by masking certain words for context and having the model predict the missing words, similar to predictive text on devices.
  2. Efficacy and Coherence: This training method is highly effective but does not guarantee coherent text generation.

Shortcomings of Large Language Models (LLMs)

  1. Grammatical but Incoherent Text: LLMs can produce grammatically correct but incoherent text, highlighting their limitations in generating meaningful content.
  2. Falsehoods and Contradictions: They can propagate falsehoods and combine conflicting information from various sources without discerning accuracy.
  3. Lack of Intent and Understanding: LLMs lack intent and don’t comprehend truth or falsehood; they form associations between words and concepts without assessing their accuracy.

Addressing Hallucination in LLMs

  1. Challenges of Hallucination: Hallucination in LLMs arises from their inability to gauge the uncertainty of their predictions and their consistency in generating outputs.
  2. Mitigation Approaches: While complete elimination of hallucinations may be challenging, practical approaches can help reduce them.

Practical Approaches to Mitigate Hallucination

  1. Knowledge Integration: Integrating high-quality knowledge bases with LLMs can enhance accuracy in question-answering systems.
  2. Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF): This approach involves training LLMs, collecting human feedback, and fine-tuning models based on human judgments.
  3. Limitations of RLHF: Despite its promise, RLHF also has limitations and may not entirely eliminate hallucination in LLMs.

In summary, generative AI models like LLMs lack true understanding and can produce incoherent or inaccurate content. Mitigating hallucinations in these models requires careful training, knowledge integration, and feedback-driven fine-tuning, but complete elimination remains a challenge. Understanding the nature of these models is crucial in using them responsibly and effectively.

Exploring different perspectives: The role of hallucination in creativity

Considering the potential unsolvability of hallucination, at least with current Large Language Models (LLMs), is it necessarily a drawback? According to Berns, not necessarily. He suggests that hallucinating models could serve as catalysts for creativity by acting as “co-creative partners.” While their outputs may not always align entirely with facts, they could contain valuable threads worth exploring. Employing hallucination creatively can yield outcomes or combinations of ideas that might not readily occur to most individuals.

“Hallucinations” as an Issue in Context

However, Berns acknowledges that “hallucinations” become problematic when the generated statements are factually incorrect or violate established human, social, or cultural values. This is especially true in situations where individuals rely on the LLMs as experts.

He states, “In scenarios where a person relies on the LLM to be an expert, generated statements must align with facts and values. However, in creative or artistic tasks, the ability to generate unexpected outputs can be valuable. A human recipient might be surprised by a response to a query and, as a result, be pushed into a certain direction of thought that could lead to novel connections of ideas.”

Are LLMs Held to Unreasonable Standards?

On another note, Ha argues that today’s expectations of LLMs may be unreasonably high. He draws a parallel to human behavior, suggesting that humans also “hallucinate” at times when we misremember or misrepresent the truth. However, he posits that cognitive dissonance arises when LLMs produce outputs that appear accurate on the surface but may contain errors upon closer examination.

A skeptical approach to LLM predictions

Ultimately, the solution may not necessarily reside in altering the technical workings of generative AI models. Instead, the most prudent approach for now seems to be treating the predictions of these models with a healthy dose of skepticism.

In a nutshell

AI hallucinations in Large Language Models pose a complex challenge, but they also offer opportunities for creativity. While current mitigation strategies may not entirely eliminate hallucinations, they can reduce their impact. However, it’s essential to strike a balance between leveraging AI’s creative potential and ensuring factual accuracy, all while approaching LLM predictions with skepticism in our pursuit of responsible and effective AI utilization.


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Orchestration frameworks: Simplify LLM-Apps with LangChain and Llama Index
Ruhma Khawaja
| September 14, 2023

In the dynamic realm of language models and data-driven apps, efficient orchestration frameworks are key. Explore LangChain and Llama Index, simplifying LLM-app interactions.

Large language models (LLMs) are becoming increasingly popular for a variety of tasks, such as natural language understanding, question answering, and text generation. However, LLMs can be complex and difficult to use, which is where orchestration frameworks come in.

Orchestration frameworks provide a way to manage and control LLMs. They can help to simplify the development and deployment of LLM-based applications, and they can also help to improve the performance and reliability of these applications.

There are a number of orchestration frameworks available, two of the most popular being LangChain and Llama Index.

What is Orchestration Frameworks
What are Orchestration Frameworks?

LangChain and Orchestration Frameworks

LangChain is an open-source orchestration framework that is designed to be easy to use and scalable. It provides a number of features that make it well-suited for managing LLMs, such as:

  • A simple API that makes it easy to interact with LLMs
  • A distributed architecture that can scale to handle large numbers of LLMs
  • A variety of features for managing LLMs, such as load balancing, fault tolerance, and security

Llama Index is another open-source orchestration framework that is designed for managing LLMs. It provides a number of features that are similar to LangChain, such as:

  • A simple API
  • A distributed architecture
  • A variety of features for managing LLMs

However, Llama Index also has some unique features that make it well-suited for certain applications, such as:

  • The ability to query LLMs in a distributed manner
  • The ability to index LLMs so that they can be searched more efficiently

Both LangChain and Llama Index are powerful orchestration frameworks that can be used to manage LLMs. The best framework for a particular application will depend on the specific requirements of that application.

In addition to LangChain and Llama Index, there are a number of other orchestration frameworks available, such as Bard, Megatron, Megatron-Turing NLG and OpenAI Five. These frameworks offer a variety of features and capabilities, so it is important to choose the one that best meets the needs of your application.

LangChain and Orchestration Frameworks
LangChain and Orchestration Frameworks – Source: TheNewsStack

LlamaIndex and LangChain: Orchestrating LLMs


The venture capital firm Andreessen Horowitz (a16z) identifies both LlamaIndex and LangChain as orchestration frameworks that abstract away the complexities of prompt chaining, enabling seamless data querying and management between applications and LLMs. This orchestration process encompasses interactions with external APIs, retrieval of contextual data from vector databases, and maintaining memory across multiple LLM calls.

LlamaIndex: A data framework for the future

LlamaIndex distinguishes itself by offering a unique approach to combining custom data with LLMs, all without the need for fine-tuning or in-context learning. It defines itself as a “simple, flexible data framework for connecting custom data sources to large language models.” Moreover, it accommodates a wide range of data types, making it an inclusive solution for diverse data needs.

Continuous evolution: LlamaIndex 0.7.0

LlamaIndex is a dynamic and evolving framework. Its creator, Jerry Liu, recently released version 0.7.0, which focuses on enhancing modularity and customizability to facilitate the development of LLM applications that leverage your data effectively. This release underscores the commitment to providing developers with tools to architect data structures for LLM applications.

The LlamaIndex Ecosystem: LlamaHub

At the core of LlamaIndex lies LlamaHub, a data ingestion platform that plays a pivotal role in getting started with the framework. LlamaHub offers a library of data loaders and readers, making data ingestion a seamless process. Notably, LlamaHub is not exclusive to LlamaIndex; it can also be integrated with LangChain, expanding its utility.



Navigating the LlamaIndex workflow

Users of LlamaIndex typically follow a structured workflow:

  1. Parsing Documents into Nodes
  2. Constructing an Index (from Nodes or Documents)
  3. Optional Advanced Step: Building Indices on Top of Other Indices
  4. Querying the Index

The querying aspect involves interactions with an LLM, where a “query” serves as an input. While this process can be complex, it forms the foundation of LlamaIndex’s functionality.

In essence, LlamaIndex empowers users to feed pertinent information into an LLM prompt selectively. Instead of overwhelming the LLM with all custom data, LlamaIndex allows users to extract relevant information for each query, streamlining the process.


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Power of LlamaIndex and LangChain

LlamaIndex seamlessly integrates with LangChain, offering users flexibility in data retrieval and query management. It extends the functionality of data loaders by treating them as LangChain Tools and providing Tool abstractions to use LlamaIndex’s query engine alongside a LangChain agent.

Real-world applications: Context-augmented chatbots

LlamaIndex and LangChain join forces to create context-rich chatbots. Learn how these frameworks can be leveraged to build chatbots that provide enhanced contextual responses.

This comprehensive exploration unveils the potential of LlamaIndex, offering insights into its evolution, features, and practical applications.

Why are orchestration frameworks needed?

Data orchestration frameworks are essential for building applications on enterprise data because they help to:

  • Eliminate the need for foundation model retraining: Foundation models are large language models that are trained on massive datasets of text and code. They can be used to perform a variety of tasks, such as generating text, translating languages, and answering questions. However, foundation models can be expensive to train and retrain. Orchestration frameworks can help to reduce the need for retraining by allowing you to reuse trained models across multiple applications.


  • Overcome token limits: Foundation models often have token limits, which restrict the number of words or tokens that can be processed in a single request. Orchestration frameworks can help to overcome token limits by breaking down large tasks into smaller subtasks that can be processed separately.

  • Provide connectors for data sources: Orchestration frameworks typically provide connectors for a variety of data sources, such as databases, cloud storage, and APIs. This makes it easy to connect your data pipeline to the data sources that you need.

  • Reduce boilerplate code: Orchestration frameworks can help to reduce boilerplate code by providing a variety of pre-built components for common tasks, such as data extraction, transformation, and loading. This allows you to focus on the business logic of your application.

Popular orchestration frameworks

There are a number of popular orchestration frameworks available, including:

  • Prefect is an open-source orchestration framework that is written in Python. It is known for its ease of use and flexibility.

  • Airflow is an open-source orchestration framework that is written in Python. It is widely used in the enterprise and is known for its scalability and reliability.

  • Luigi is an open-source orchestration framework that is written in Python. It is known for its simplicity and performance.

  • Dagster is an open-source orchestration framework that is written in Python. It is known for its extensibility and modularity.


Read more –> FraudGPT: Evolution of ChatGPT into an AI weapon for cybercriminals in 2023


Choosing the right orchestration framework

When choosing an orchestration framework, there are a number of factors to consider, such as:

  1. Ease of use: The framework should be easy to use and learn, even for users with no prior experience with orchestration.
  2. Flexibility: The framework should be flexible enough to support a wide range of data pipelines and workflows.
  3. Scalability: The framework should be able to scale to meet the needs of your organization, even as your data volumes and processing requirements grow.
  4. Reliability: The framework should be reliable and stable, with minimal downtime.
  5. Community support: The framework should have a large and active community of users and contributors.


Orchestration frameworks are essential for building applications on enterprise data. They can help to eliminate the need for foundation model retraining, overcome token limits, connect to data sources, and reduce boilerplate code. When choosing an orchestration framework, consider factors such as ease of use, flexibility, scalability, reliability, and community support.

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2023 sentiment analysis: Marketing with large language models (LLMs)
Ruhma Khawaja
| September 12, 2023

Sentiment analysis, a dynamic process, extracts opinions, emotions, and attitudes from text. Its versatility spans numerous realms, but one shining application is marketing.

Here, sentiment analysis becomes the compass guiding marketing campaigns. By deciphering customer responses, it measures campaign effectiveness.

The insights gleaned from this process become invaluable ammunition for campaign enhancement, enabling precise targeting and ultimately yielding superior results.

In this digital age, where every word matters, sentiment analysis stands as a cornerstone in understanding and harnessing the power of language for strategic marketing success. It’s the art of turning words into results, and it’s transforming the marketing landscape.

Supercharging Marketing with Sentiment Analysis and LLMs
Supercharging Marketing with Sentiment Analysis and LLMs

Under the lens: How does sentiment analysis work?

Sentiment analysis typically works by first identifying the sentiment of individual words or phrases. This can be done using a variety of methods, such as lexicon-based analysis, machine learning, or natural language processing.

Once the sentiment of individual words or phrases has been identified, they can be combined to determine the overall feeling of a piece of text. This can be done using a variety of techniques, such as sentiment scoring or sentiment classification.

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 Sentiment analysis and marketing campaigns

In the ever-evolving landscape of marketing, understanding how your audience perceives your campaigns is essential for success. Sentiment analysis, a powerful tool in the realm of data analytics, enables you to gauge public sentiment surrounding your brand and marketing efforts.

Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to effectively use sentiment analysis to track the effectiveness of your marketing campaigns:

1. Identify your data sources

Begin by identifying the sources from which you’ll gather data for sentiment analysis. These sources may include:

  • Social Media: Monitor platforms like Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and LinkedIn for mentions, comments, and shares related to your campaigns.
  • Online Reviews: Scrutinize reviews on websites such as Yelp, Amazon, or specialized industry review sites.
  • Customer Surveys: Conduct surveys to directly gather feedback from your audience.
  • Customer Support Tickets: Review tickets submitted by customers to gauge their sentiments about your products or services.

2. Choose a sentiment analysis tool or service

Selecting the right sentiment analysis tool is crucial. There are various options available, each with its own set of features. Consider factors like accuracy, scalability, and integration capabilities. Some popular tools and services include:

  • IBM Watson Natural Language Understanding
  • Google Cloud Natural Language API
  • Microsoft Azure Text Analytics
  • Open-source libraries like NLTK and spaCy
Sentiment analysis and marketing campaigns
Sentiment analysis and marketing campaigns – Data Science Dojo


Read more –> LLM Use-Cases: Top 10 industries that can benefit from using large language models


3. Clean and prepare your data

Before feeding data into your chosen tool, ensure it’s clean and well-prepared. This involves:

  • Removing irrelevant or duplicate data to avoid skewing results.
  • Correcting errors such as misspelled words or incomplete sentences.
  • Standardizing text formats for consistency.


4. Train the sentiment analysis tool

To improve accuracy, train your chosen sentiment analysis tool on your specific data. This involves providing labeled examples of text as either positive, negative, or neutral sentiment. The tool will learn from these examples and become better at identifying sentiment in your context.


5. Analyze the Results

Once your tool is trained, it’s time to analyze the sentiment of the data you’ve collected. The results can provide valuable insights, including:

  • Overall Sentiment Trends: Determine whether the sentiment is predominantly positive, negative, or neutral.
  • Campaign-Specific Insights: Break down sentiment by individual marketing campaigns to see which ones resonate most with your audience.
  • Identify Key Topics: Discover what aspects of your products, services, or campaigns are driving sentiment.


6. Act on insights

The true value of sentiment analysis lies in its ability to guide your marketing strategies. Use the insights gained to:

  • Adjust campaign messaging to align with positive sentiment trends.
  • Address issues highlighted by negative sentiment.
  • Identify opportunities for improvement based on neutral sentiment feedback.
  • Continuously refine your marketing campaigns to better meet customer expectations.


Large Language Models and Marketing Campaigns



Use case


Create personalized content Use an LLM to generate personalized content for each individual customer, such as email newsletters, social media posts, or product recommendations.
Generate ad copy Use an LLM to generate ad copy that is more likely to resonate with customers by understanding their intent and what they are looking for.
Improve customer service Use an LLM to provide more personalized and informative responses to customer inquiries, such as by understanding their question and providing them with the most relevant information.
Optimize marketing campaigns Use an LLM to optimize marketing campaigns by understanding how customers are interacting with them, such as by tracking customer clicks, views, and engagement.

Benefits of using sentiment analysis to track campaigns

There are many benefits to using sentiment analysis to track marketing campaigns. Here are a few of the most important benefits:

  • Improved decision-making: Sentiment analysis can help marketers make better decisions about their marketing campaigns. By understanding how customers are responding to their campaigns, marketers can make more informed decisions about how to allocate their resources.
  • Increased ROI: Sentiment analysis can help marketers increase the ROI of their marketing campaigns. By targeting campaigns more effectively and optimizing ad campaigns, marketers can get better results from their marketing spend.
  • Improved customer experience: Sentiment analysis can help marketers improve the customer experience. By identifying areas where customer satisfaction can be improved, marketers can make changes to their products, services, and marketing campaigns to create a better experience for their customers.

Real-life scenarios: LLM & marketing campaigns

LLMs have several advantages over traditional sentiment analysis methods. They are more accurate, can handle more complex language, and can be trained on a wider variety of data. This makes them well-suited for use in marketing, where the goal is to understand the nuances of customer sentiment.

One example of how LLMs are being used in marketing is by Twitter. Twitter uses LLMs to analyze tweets about its platform and its users. This information is then used to improve the platform’s features and to target ads more effectively.

Another example is Netflix. Netflix uses LLMs to analyze customer reviews of its movies and TV shows. This information is then used to recommend new content to customers and to improve the overall user experience.



Sentiment analysis is a powerful tool that can be used to track the effectiveness of marketing campaigns. By understanding how customers are responding to their campaigns, marketers can make better decisions, increase ROI, and improve the customer experience.

If you are looking to improve the effectiveness of your marketing campaigns, I encourage you to consider using sentiment analysis. It is a powerful tool that can help you get better results from your marketing efforts.

Sentiment analysis is the process of identifying and extracting subjective information from text, such as opinions, appraisals, emotions, or attitudes. It is a powerful tool that can be used in a variety of applications, including marketing.

In marketing, sentiment analysis can be used to:

  • Understand customer sentiment towards a product, service, or brand.
  • Identify opportunities to improve customer satisfaction.
  • Monitor social media for mentions of a brand or product.
  • Target marketing campaigns more effectively.

In a nutshell

In conclusion, sentiment analysis, coupled with the power of Large Language Models, is a dynamic duo that can elevate your marketing strategies to new heights. By understanding and acting upon customer sentiments, you can refine your campaigns, boost ROI, and enhance the overall customer experience.

Embrace this technological synergy to stay ahead in the ever-evolving world of marketing.


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How to tune LLM Parameters for optimal performance
Ayesha Saleem
| September 11, 2023

Shape your model performance using LLM parameters.


PaLM 2 vs. Llama 2: The next evolution of language models
Syed Muhammad Mubashir Rizvi
| September 11, 2023

Language models, a recent advanced technology that is blooming more and more as the days go by. These complex algorithms are the backbone upon which our modern technological advancements rest and which are doing wonders for natural language communication.

From virtual assistants like Siri and Alexa to personalized recommendations on streaming platforms, chatbots, and language translation services, language models surely are the engines that power it all. 

The world we live in relies increasingly on natural language processing (NLP in short) for communication, information retrieval, and decision-making, making the evolution of language models not just a technological advancement but a necessity.

PaLM 2 vs. Llama 2
PaLM 2 vs. Llama 2


In this blog, we will embark on a journey through the fascinating world of language models and begin by understanding the significance of these models.  

But the real stars of this narrative will be PaLM 2 and Llama 2. These are more than just names; they are the cutting edge of NLP. PaLM 2 stands for “Progressive and Adaptive Language Model 2” and Llama 2 is short for “Language Learning and Mastery Algorithm 2”.

In the later sections, we will take a closer look at both these astonishing models by exploring their features and capabilities, and we will also do a comparison of these models by evaluating their performance, strengths, and weaknesses.

By the end of this exploration, we aim to shed light on which models might hold an edge or where they complement each other in the grand landscape of language models. 


Large language model bootcamp

Before getting into the details of the PaLM 2 and Llama 2 models, we should have an idea of what language models are and what they have achieved for us.  

Language Models and their role in NLP 

Natural language processing (NLP) is a field of artificial intelligence which is solely dedicated to enabling machines and computers to understand, interpret, generate, and mimic human language.

And language models as we talk about, lie at the center of NLP, they are the heart of NLP and are designed to predict the likelihood of a word or a phrase given the context of a sentence or a series of words. There are two main things or concepts when we talk about language models, they are: 

  • Predictive Power: Language models excel in predicting what comes next in a sequence of words, making them incredibly useful in autocomplete features, language translation, and chatbots.
  • Statistical Foundation: Most language models are built on statistical principles, analyzing large corpora of text to learn the patterns, syntax, and semantics of human language.

Evolution of language models: From inception to the present day

These models have come a very long way since their birth, and their journey can be roughly divided into several generations, where some significant advancements were made in each generation. 

  • First Generation: Early language models used simple statistical techniques like n-grams to predict words based on the previous ones.
  • Second Generation: The advent of deep learning and neural networks revolutionized language models, giving rise to models like Word2Vec and GloVe, which had the ability to capture semantic relationships between words. 
  • Third Generation: The introduction of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks allowed models to better handle sequences of text, enabling applications like text generation and sentiment analysis. 
  • Fourth Generation: Transformer models, such as GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer), marked a significant and crucial leap forward in technology. These models introduced attention mechanisms, giving them the power to capture long-range dependencies in text and perform tasks ranging from translation to question-answering. 


Importance of recent advancements in language model technology

The recent advancements in language model technology have been nothing short of revolutionary, and they are transforming the way we used to interact with machines and access information from them. Here are some of the evolutions and advancements: 

  • Broader Applicability: The language models we have today can tackle a wider range of tasks, from summarizing text and generating code to composing poetry and simulating human conversation. 
  • Zero-shot Learning: Some models, like GPT-3 (by OpenAI), have demonstrated the ability to perform tasks with minimal or no task-specific training, showcasing their adaptability. 
  • Multimodal Integration: Language models are also starting to incorporate images, enabling them to understand and generate text based on visual content. 

This was all for a brief introduction into the world of language models and how they have evolved over the years, understanding these foundations of language models is essential as now we will be diving deeper into the latest innovations of PaLM 2 and Llama 2. 


Introducing PaLM 2


The term PaLM 2 as mentioned before is short for “Progressive and Adaptive Language Model 2”, and it is a groundbreaking language model which takes us to the next step in the evolution of NLP. Acquiring the knowledge of the successes from its predecessor models, PaLM model aims to push the boundaries of what’s possible in natural language generation, understanding and interpretation. 

Key Features and Capabilities of PaLM 2: 

PaLM 2 is not just another language model; it’s a groundbreaking innovation in the world of natural language processing and boasts a wide range of remarkable features and capabilities that sets it far apart from its predecessor models. Here, we’ll explore the distinctive features and attributes that make PaLM 2 stand out in the ever-competitive landscape of language models: 

Progressive Learning:

This model has the power to continually learn and adapt to changing language patterns, which in turn, ensures its relevance in a dynamic linguistic landscape. This ability of adaptability makes it well-suited for applications where language evolves rapidly, such as social media and online trends. 

Multimodal Integration:

The model can seamlessly integrate text and visual information, revealing many new possibilities in tasks that require a deep understanding of both textual and visual content. This feature is invaluable and priceless in fields like image captioning and content generation. 

Few-shot and Zero-shot Learning:

PaLM 2 demonstrates impressive few-shot and zero-shot learning abilities, which allows it to perform tasks with minimal examples or no explicit training data. This versatility makes it a valuable tool for a wide range of industries and applications. This feature reduces the time and resources needed for model adaptation. 



The model’s architecture is extremely efficient and is designed to scale efficiently, accommodating large datasets and high-performance computing environments. This scalability is essential for handling the massive volumes of text and data generated daily on the internet. 

Real-time applications:

PaLM 2’s adaptive nature makes it ideal for real-time applications, where staying aware of evolving language trends is crucial. Whether it’s providing up-to-the-minute news summaries, moderating online content, or offering personalized recommendations, PaLM 2 can excel greatly in real-time scenarios. 

Ethical considerations:

PaLM 2 also incorporates ethical guidelines and safeguards to address concerns about misinformation, bias, and inappropriate content generation. The developers have taken a proactive stance to ensure responsible AI practices are embedded in PaLM 2’s functionality.  

Real-world applications and use cases of PaLM 2: 

The features and capabilities of PaLM 2’s model extends to a myriad of real-world applications, revolutionizing and changing the way we interact with technology. You can see below some of the real-world applications for which this model has shown amazing wonders: 

  1. Content ceneration: Content creators can leverage PaLM 2 to automate content generation, from writing news articles and product descriptions to crafting creative marketing copy. 
  2. Customer support: PaLM 2 can power chatbots and virtual assistants, enhancing customer support by providing quick and accurate responses to the user inquiries.
  3. Language translation: Its multilingual proficiency makes it a valuable tool for translation services, enabling seamless communication across language barriers.
  4. Healthcare and research: In the medical field, PaLM 2 can assist in analyzing medical literature, generating reports, and even suggesting treatment options based on the latest research.
  5. Education: PaLM 2 can play a role in personalized education by creating tailored learning materials and providing explanations for complex topics. 

In conclusion, PaLM 2, is not merely a language model and is not like the predecessor models; it’s a visionary leap forward in the realm of natural language processing.

With its progressive learning, dynamic adaptability, multimodal integration, mastery of few-shot and zero-shot learning, scalability, real-time applicability, and ethical consciousness, PaLM 2 has redefined the way we used to interact with and harnessed the power of language models.

Its ability to evolve and adapt in real-time, coupled with its ethical safeguards, sets it apart as a versatile and responsible solution for a wide array of industries and applications.  


Meet Llama 2:  


Let’s talk about Llama 2 now, that is short for “Language Learning and Mastery Algorithm 2” and emerges as a pivotal player in the realm of language models. The model has been built upon the foundations laid by its predecessor model known as Llama. It is another one of the latest advanced models and introduces a host of enhancements and innovations poised to redefine the boundaries of natural language understanding and generation. 

Key features and capabilities of Llama 2: 


Beyond its impressive features, Llama 2 unveils a range of unique qualities that distinguish it as an exceptional contender in the world of language models. It distinguishes itself through its unique features and capabilities and here, we will discuss and highlight some of them briefly: 

  1. Semantic mastery: Llama 2 exhibits an exceptional grasp of semantics, allowing it to comprehend context and nuances in language with a depth that closely resembles human understanding and interpretation. This profound linguistic feature makes it a powerful tool for generating contextually relevant text. 
  2. Interdisciplinary proficiency: One of Llama 2’s standout attributes is its versatility across diverse domains, applications, and industries. Its adaptability renders it well-suited for a multitude of applications, spanning from medical research and legal documentation to creative content generation. 
  3. Multi-Language competence: The advanced model showcases an impressive multilingual proficiency, transcending language barriers to provide precise, accurate, context-aware translations and insights across a wide spectrum of languages. This feature greatly enables fostering global communication and collaboration.
  4. Conversational excellence: Llama 2 also excels in the realm of human-computer conversation. Its ability to understand conversational cues, context switches, and generate responses with a human touch makes it invaluable for applications like chatbots, virtual assistants, and customer support.
  5. Interdisciplinary collaboration: Another amazing aspect of Llama 2 is interdisciplinary collaboration as this model bridges the gap between technical and non-technical experts. This enables professionals from different fields to leverage the model’s capabilities effectively for their respective domains.
  6. Ethical focus: Like PaLM 2, Llama 2 also embeds ethical guidelines and safeguards into its functioning to ensure responsible and unbiased language processing, addressing the ethical concerns associated with AI-driven language models. 


Read more –> Boost your business with ChatGPT: 10 innovative ways to monetize using AI

Real-world applications and use cases of Llama 2: 

The adaptability and capabilities of Llama 2 extend across a plethora of real-world scenarios, ushering in transformative possibilities for our interaction with language and technology. Here are some domains in which Llama 2 excels with proficiency: 

  1. Advanced healthcare assistance: In the healthcare sector, Llama 2 lends valuable support to medical professionals by extracting insights from complex medical literature, generating detailed patient reports, and assisting in intricate diagnosis processes.
  2. Legal and compliance support: Legal practitioners also benefit from Llama 2’s capacity to analyze legal documents, generate precise contracts, and ensure compliance through its thorough understanding of legal language.
  3. Creative content generation: Content creators and marketers harness Llama 2’s semantic mastery to craft engaging content, compelling advertisements, and product descriptions that resonate with their target audience.
  4. Multilingual communication: In an increasingly interconnected and socially evolving world, Llama 2 facilitates seamless multilingual communication, offering accurate translations and promoting international cooperation and understanding. 

In summary, Llama 2, emerges as a transformative force in the realm of language models. With its profound grasp of semantics, interdisciplinary proficiency, multilingual competence, conversational excellence, and a host of unique attributes, Llama 2 sets new standards in natural language understanding and generation.

Its adaptability across diverse domains and unwavering commitment to ethical considerations make it a versatile and responsible solution for a myriad of real-world applications, from healthcare and law to creative content generation and fostering global communication. 

Comparing PaLM 2 and Llama 2

  • Performance metrics and benchmarks. 
  • Strengths and weaknesses. 
  • How both stand up against each other w.r.t accuracy, efficiency, and scalability. 
  • User experiences and feedback. 
Feature PaLM 2 Llama 2
Model size 540 billion parameters 70 billion parameters
Training data 560 billion words 560 billion words
Architecture Transformer-based Transformer-based
Training method Self-supervised learning Self-supervised learning


In conclusion, both PaLM 2 and Llama 2 stand as pioneering language models with the capacity to reshape our interaction with technology and address critical global challenges.

PaLM 2, possessing greater power and versatility, boasts an extensive array of capabilities and excels at adapting to novel scenarios and acquiring new skills. Nevertheless, it comes with the complexity and cost of training and deployment.

On the other hand, Llama 2, while smaller and simpler, still demonstrates impressive capabilities. It shines in generating imaginative and informative content, all while maintaining cost-effective training and deployment.

The choice between these models hinges on the specific application at hand. For those seeking a multifaceted, safe model for various tasks, PaLM 2 is a solid pick. If the goal is a creative and informative content generation, Llama 2 is the ideal choice. Both PaLM 2 and Llama 2 remain in active development, promising continuous enhancements in their capabilities. These models signify the future of natural language processing, holding the potential to catalyze transformative change on a global scale.


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Predictive analytics vs. AI: Why the difference matters in 2023?
Ruhma Khawaja
| September 8, 2023

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Predictive Analytics are revolutionizing the way engineers approach their work. This article explores the fascinating applications of AI and Predictive Analytics in the field of engineering. We’ll dive into the core concepts of AI, with a special focus on Machine Learning and Deep Learning, highlighting their essential distinctions.

By the end of this journey, you’ll have a clear understanding of how Deep Learning utilizes historical data to make precise forecasts, ultimately saving valuable time and resources.

Predictive analytics and AI
Predictive analytics and AI

Different Approaches to Analytics

In the realm of analytics, there are diverse strategies: descriptive, diagnostic, predictive, and prescriptive. Descriptive analytics involves summarizing historical data to extract insights into past events. Diagnostic analytics goes further, aiming to uncover the root causes behind these events. In engineering, predictive analytics takes center stage, allowing professionals to forecast future outcomes, greatly assisting in product design and maintenance. Lastly, prescriptive analytics recommends actions to optimize results.


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AI: Empowering Engineers

Artificial Intelligence isn’t about replacing engineers; it’s about empowering them. AI provides engineers with a powerful toolset to make more informed decisions and enhance their interactions with the digital world. It serves as a collaborative partner, amplifying human capabilities rather than supplanting them.

AI and Predictive Analytics: Bridging the Gap

AI and Predictive Analytics are two intertwined yet distinct fields. AI encompasses the creation of intelligent machines capable of autonomous decision-making, while Predictive Analytics relies on data, statistics, and machine learning to forecast future events accurately. Predictive Analytics thrives on historical patterns to predict forthcoming outcomes.


Read more –> Data Science vs AI – What is 2023 demand for?


Navigating Engineering with AI

Before AI’s advent, engineers employed predictive analytics tools grounded in their expertise and mathematical models. While these tools were effective, they demanded significant time and computational resources.

However, with the introduction of Deep Learning in 2018, predictive analytics in engineering underwent a transformative revolution. Deep Learning, an AI subset, quickly analyzes vast datasets, delivering results in seconds. It replaces complex algorithms with neural networks, streamlining and accelerating the predictive process.

The Role of Data Analysts

Data analysts play a pivotal role in predictive analytics. They are the ones who spot trends and construct models that predict future outcomes based on historical data. Their expertise in deciphering data patterns is indispensable in making accurate forecasts.

Machine Learning and Deep Learning: The Power Duo

Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL) are two critical branches of AI that bring exceptional capabilities to predictive analytics. ML encompasses a range of algorithms that enable computers to learn from data without explicit programming. DL, on the other hand, focuses on training deep neural networks to process complex, unstructured data with remarkable precision.

Turbocharging Predictive Analytics with AI

The integration of AI into predictive analytics turbocharges the process, dramatically reducing processing time. This empowerment equips design teams with the ability to explore a wider range of variations, optimizing their products and processes.

In the domain of heat exchanger applications, AI, particularly the NCS AI model, showcases its prowess. It accurately predicts efficiency, temperature, and pressure drop, elevating the efficiency of heat exchanger design through generative design techniques.






Predictive Analytics


Artificial Intelligence

Definition Uses historical data to identify patterns and predict future outcomes. Uses machine learning to learn from data and make decisions without being explicitly programmed.
Goals To predict future events and trends. To automate tasks, improve decision-making, and create new products and services.
Techniques Uses statistical models, machine learning algorithms, and data mining. Uses deep learning, natural language processing, and computer vision.
Applications Customer behavior analysis, fraud detection, risk assessment, and inventory management. Self-driving cars, medical diagnosis, and product recommendations.
Advantages Can be used to make predictions about complex systems. Can learn from large amounts of data and make decisions that are more accurate than humans.
Disadvantages Can be biased by the data it is trained on. Can be expensive to develop and deploy.
Maturity Well-established and widely used. Still emerging, but growing rapidly.

Realizing the Potential: A Use Case

  1. Healthcare:
    • AI aids medical professionals by prioritizing and triaging patients based on real-time data.
    • It supports early disease diagnosis by analyzing medical history and statistical data.
    • Medical imaging powered by AI helps visualize the body for quicker and more accurate diagnoses.
  2. Customer Service:
    • AI-driven smart call routing minimizes wait times and ensures customers’ concerns are directed to the right agents.
    • Online chatbots, powered by AI, handle common customer inquiries efficiently.
    • Smart Analytics tools provide real-time insights for faster decision-making.
  3. Finance:
    • AI assists in fraud detection by monitoring financial behavior patterns and identifying anomalies.
    • Expense management systems use AI for categorizing expenses, aiding tracking and future projections.
    • Automated billing streamlines financial processes, saving time and ensuring accuracy.

Machine Learning (ML):


  1. Social Media Moderation:
    • ML algorithms help social media platforms flag and identify posts violating community standards, though manual review is often required.
  2. Email Automation:
    • Email providers employ ML to detect and filter spam, ensuring cleaner inboxes.
  3. Facial Recognition:
    • ML algorithms recognize facial patterns for tasks like device unlocking and photo tagging.

Predictive Analytics:


  1. Predictive Maintenance:
    • Predictive analytics anticipates equipment failures, allowing for proactive maintenance and cost savings.
  2. Risk Modeling:
    • It uses historical data to identify potential business risks, aiding in risk mitigation and informed decision-making.
  3. Next Best Action:
    • Predictive analytics analyzes customer behavior data to recommend the best ways to interact with customers, optimizing timing and channels.

Business Benefits:

The combination of AI, ML, and predictive analytics offers businesses the capability to:

  • Make informed decisions.
  • Streamline operations.
  • Improve customer service.
  • Prevent costly equipment breakdowns.
  • Mitigate risks.
  • Optimize customer interactions.
  • Enhance overall decision-making through clear analytics and future predictions.

These technologies empower businesses to navigate the complex landscape of data and derive actionable insights for growth and efficiency.

Enhancing Supply Chain Efficiency with Predictive Analytics and AI

The convergence of predictive analytics and AI holds the key to improving supply chain forecast accuracy, especially in the wake of the pandemic. Real-time data access is critical for every resource in today’s dynamic environment. Consider the example of the plastic supply chain, which can be disrupted by shortages of essential raw materials due to unforeseen events like natural disasters or shipping delays. AI systems can proactively identify potential disruptions, enabling more informed decision-making.

AI is poised to become a $309 billion industry by 2026, and 44% of executives have reported reduced operational costs through AI implementation. Let’s delve deeper into how AI can enhance predictive analytics within the supply chain:

1. Inventory Management:

Even prior to the pandemic, inventory mismanagement led to significant financial losses due to overstocking and understocking. The lack of real-time inventory visibility exacerbated these issues. When you combine real-time data with AI, you move beyond basic reordering.

Technologies like Internet of Things (IoT) devices in warehouses offer real-time alerts for low inventory levels, allowing for proactive restocking. Over time, AI-driven solutions can analyze data and recognize patterns, facilitating more efficient inventory planning.

To kickstart this process, a robust data collection strategy is essential. From basic barcode scanning to advanced warehouse automation technologies, capturing comprehensive data points is vital. When every barcode scan and related data is fed into an AI-powered analytics engine, you gain insights into inventory movement patterns, sales trends, and workforce optimization possibilities.

2. Delivery Optimization:

Predictive analytics has been employed to optimize trucking routes and ensure timely deliveries. However, unexpected events such as accidents, traffic congestion, or severe weather can disrupt supply chain operations. This is where analytics and AI shine.

By analyzing these unforeseen events, AI can provide insights for future preparedness and decision-making. Route optimization software, integrated with AI, enables real-time rerouting based on historical data. AI algorithms can predict optimal delivery times, potential delays, and other transportation factors.

IoT devices on trucks collect real-time sensor data, allowing for further optimization. They can detect cargo shifts, load imbalances, and abrupt stops, offering valuable insights to enhance operational efficiency.

Turning Data into Actionable Insights

The pandemic underscored the potency of predictive analytics combined with AI. Data collection is a cornerstone of supply chain management, but its true value lies in transforming it into predictive, actionable insights. To embark on this journey, a well-thought-out plan and organizational buy-in are essential for capturing data points and deploying the appropriate technology to fully leverage predictive analytics with AI.

Wrapping Up

AI and Predictive Analytics are ushering in a new era of engineering, where precision, efficiency, and informed decision-making reign supreme. Engineers no longer need extensive data science training to excel in their roles. These technologies empower them to navigate the complex world of product design and decision-making with confidence and agility. As the future unfolds, the possibilities for engineers are limitless, thanks to the dynamic duo of AI and Predictive Analytics.


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Introducing ‘Algorithm of Thoughts’
Data Science Dojo Staff
| September 5, 2023

Virginia Tech and Microsoft unveiled the Algorithm of Thoughts, a breakthrough AI method supercharging idea exploration and reasoning prowess in Large Language Models (LLMs).



How Microsoft’s human-like reasoning algorithm could make AI smarter

Recent advancements in Large Language Models (LLMs) have drawn significant attention due to their versatility in problem-solving tasks. These models have demonstrated their competence across various problem-solving scenarios, encompassing code generation, instruction comprehension, and general problem resolution.

The trajectory of contemporary research has shifted towards more sophisticated strategies, departing from the initial direct answer approaches. Instead, modern approaches favor linear reasoning pathways, breaking down intricate problems into manageable subtasks to facilitate a systematic solution search. Moreover, these approaches integrate external processes to influence token generation by modifying the contextual information.


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In current research endeavors, a prevalent practice involves the adoption of an external operational mechanism that intermittently interrupts, adjusts, and then resumes the generation process. This tactic is employed with the objective of enhancing LLMs’ reasoning capabilities. However, it does entail certain drawbacks, including an increase in query requests, resulting in elevated expenses, greater memory requirements, and heightened computational overhead.

Under the spotlight: “Algorithm of Thoughts”

Microsoft, the tech behemoth, has introduced an innovative AI training technique known as the “Algorithm of Thoughts” (AoT). This cutting-edge method is engineered to optimize the performance of expansive language models such as ChatGPT, enhancing their cognitive abilities to resemble human-like reasoning.

This unveiling marks a significant progression for Microsoft, a company that has made substantial investments in artificial intelligence (AI), with a particular emphasis on OpenAI, the pioneering creators behind renowned models like DALL-E, ChatGPT, and the formidable GPT language model.

Algorithm of Thoughts by Microsoft
Algorithm of Thoughts by Microsoft

Microsoft Unveils Groundbreaking AoT Technique: A Paradigm Shift in Language Models

In a significant stride towards AI evolution, Microsoft has introduced the “Algorithm of Thoughts” (AoT) technique, touting it as a potential game-changer in the field. According to a recently published research paper, AoT promises to revolutionize the capabilities of language models by guiding them through a more streamlined problem-solving path.

Empowering Language Models with In-Context Learning

At the heart of this pioneering approach lies the concept of “in-context learning.” This innovative mechanism equips the language model with the ability to explore various problem-solving avenues in a structured and systematic manner.

Accelerated Problem-Solving with Reduced Resource Dependency

The outcome of this paradigm shift in AI? Significantly faster and resource-efficient problem-solving. Microsoft’s AoT technique holds the promise of reshaping the landscape of AI, propelling language models like ChatGPT into new realms of efficiency and cognitive prowess.


Read more –>  ChatGPT Enterprise: OpenAI’s enterprise-grade version of ChatGPT

Synergy of Human & Algorithmic Intelligence: Microsoft’s AoT Method

The Algorithm of Thoughts (AoT) emerges as a promising solution to address the limitations encountered in current in-context learning techniques such as the Chain-of-Thought (CoT) approach. Notably, CoT at times presents inaccuracies in intermediate steps, a shortcoming AoT aims to rectify by leveraging algorithmic examples for enhanced reliability.

Drawing Inspiration from Both Realms – AoT is inspired by a fusion of human and machine attributes, seeking to enhance the performance of generative AI models. While human cognition excels in intuitive thinking, algorithms are renowned for their methodical, exhaustive exploration of possibilities. Microsoft’s research paper articulates AoT’s mission as seeking to “fuse these dual facets to augment reasoning capabilities within Large Language Models (LLMs).”

Enhancing Cognitive Capacity

This hybrid approach empowers the model to transcend human working memory constraints, facilitating a more comprehensive analysis of ideas. In contrast to the linear reasoning employed by CoT or the Tree of Thoughts (ToT) technique, AoT introduces flexibility by allowing for the contemplation of diverse options for sub-problems. It maintains its effectiveness with minimal prompts and competes favorably with external tree-search tools, achieving a delicate balance between computational costs and efficiency.

A Paradigm Shift in AI Reasoning

AoT marks a notable shift away from traditional supervised learning by integrating the search process itself. With ongoing advancements in prompt engineering, researchers anticipate that this approach can empower models to efficiently tackle complex real-world problems while also contributing to a reduction in their carbon footprint.


Read more –> NOOR, the new largest NLP Arabic language model


Microsoft’s Strategic Position

Given Microsoft’s substantial investments in the realm of AI, the integration of AoT into advanced systems such as GPT-4 seems well within reach. While the endeavor of teaching language models to emulate human thought processes remains challenging, the potential for transformation in AI capabilities is undeniably significant.

Wrapping up

In summary, AoT presents a wide range of potential applications. Its capacity to transform the approach of Large Language Models (LLMs) to reasoning spans diverse domains, ranging from conventional problem-solving to tackling complex programming challenges. By incorporating algorithmic pathways, LLMs can now consider multiple solution avenues, utilize model backtracking methods, and evaluate the feasibility of various subproblems. In doing so, AoT introduces a novel paradigm in in-context learning, effectively bridging the gap between LLMs and algorithmic thought processes.


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Personalized Text Generation with Google AI
Ruhma Khawaja
| September 4, 2023

The rise of AI-based technologies has led to increased interest in individualized text generation. Generative systems that can produce personalized responses that take into account factors such as the audience, creation context, and information needs are in high demand.

Google AI's text generation
Google AI’s text generation

Understanding individualized text generation

Researchers have investigated the creation of customized text in a variety of settings, including reviews, chatbots, and social media. However, most existing work has focused on task-specific models that rely on domain-specific features or information. There is less attention on how to create a generic approach that can be used in any situation.

In the past, text generation was a relatively straightforward task. If you wanted to create a document, you would simply type it out from scratch. However, with the rise of artificial intelligence (AI), text generation is becoming increasingly sophisticated.

Individualized text generation

One of the most promising areas of AI research is individualized text generation. This is the task of generating text that is tailored to a specific individual or context. For example, an individualized email would be one that is specifically tailored to the recipient’s interests and preferences.

Challenges:  There are a number of challenges associated with individualized text generation. One challenge is that it requires a large amount of data. In order to generate text that is tailored to a specific individual, the AI model needs to have a good understanding of that individual’s interests, preferences, and writing style.

Methods to improve individualized text generation

There are a number of methods that can be used to improve individualized text generation. One method is to train the AI model on a dataset of text that is specific to the individual or context. For example, if you want to generate personalized emails, you could train the AI model on a dataset of emails that have been sent and received by the individual.

Another method to improve individualized text generation is to use auxiliary tasks. Auxiliary tasks are additional tasks that are given to the AI model in addition to the main task of generating text. These tasks can help the AI model learn about the individual or context, which can then be used to improve the quality of the generated text.

LLMs for individualized text generation

Large Language Models (LLMs), although powerful, are typically trained on broad and general-purpose text data. This presents a unique set of hurdles to overcome. In this exploration, we delve into strategies to augment LLMs’ capacity for generating highly individualized text.

Training on specific data

One effective approach involves fine-tuning LLMs using data that is specific to the individual or context. Consider the scenario of crafting personalized emails. Here, the LLM can be fine-tuned using a dataset comprised of emails exchanged by the target individual. This tailored training equips the model with a deeper understanding of the individual’s language, tone, and preferences.


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Harnessing auxiliary tasks

Another potent technique in our arsenal is the use of auxiliary tasks. These tasks complement the primary text generation objective and offer invaluable insights into the individual or context. By incorporating such auxiliary challenges, LLMs can significantly elevate the quality of their generated content.

Example: Author Identification: For instance, let’s take the case of an LLM tasked with generating personalized emails. An auxiliary task might involve identifying the author of an email from a given dataset. This seemingly minor task holds the key to a richer understanding of the individual’s unique writing style.

Google’s approach to individualized text generation

Recent research from Google proposes a generic approach to producing unique content by drawing on extensive linguistic resources. Their study is inspired by a common method of writing instruction that breaks down the writing process with external sources into smaller steps: research, source evaluation, summary, synthesis, and integration.




Retrieval The process of retrieving relevant information from a secondary repository of personal contexts, such as previous documents the user has written.
Ranking The process of ranking the retrieved information for relevance and importance.
Summarization The process of summarizing the ranked information into key elements.
Synthesis The process of combining the key elements into a new document.
Generation The process of generating the new document using an LLM.

The Multi-Stage – Multi-Task Framework

To train LLMs for individualized text production, the Google team takes a similar approach, adopting a multistage multitask structure that includes retrieval, ranking, summarization, synthesis, and generation. Specifically, they use the title and first line of the current document to create a question and retrieve relevant information from a secondary repository of personal contexts, such as previous documents the user has written.

They then summarize the ranked results after ranking them for relevance and importance. In addition to retrieval and summarization, they synthesize the retrieved information into key elements, which are then fed into the LLM to generate the new document.

Improving the reading abilities of LLMs

It is a common observation in the field of language teaching that reading and writing skills develop hand in hand. Additionally, research shows that individual reading level and amount can be measured through author recognition activities, which correlate with reading proficiency.

These two findings led the Google researchers to create a multitasking environment where they added an auxiliary task asking the LLM to identify the authorship of a particular text to improve its reading abilities. They believe that by giving the model this challenge, it will be able to interpret the provided text more accurately and produce more compelling and tailored writing.

Evaluation of the proposed models

The Google team used three publicly available datasets consisting of email correspondence, social media debates, and product reviews to evaluate the performance of the proposed models. The multi-stage, multi-task framework showed significant improvements over several baselines across all three datasets.


The Google research team’s work presents a promising approach to individualized text generation with LLMs. The multi-stage, multi-task framework is able to effectively incorporate personal contexts and improve the reading abilities of LLMs, leading to more accurate and compelling text generation.

Learn to build LLM applications                                          

Master ChatGPT cheat sheet with examples
Ayesha Saleem
| September 1, 2023

Master ChatGPT to automate repetitive tasks, including answering frequently asked questions, allowing businesses to provide efficient and round-the-clock customer support. It assists in generating content such as articles, blog posts, and product descriptions, saving time and resources for content creation.

AI-driven chatbots like ChatGPT can analyze customer data to provide personalized marketing recommendations and engage customers in real time. By automating various tasks and processes, businesses can reduce operational costs and allocate resources to more strategic activities.

Key use cases:

 1. Summarizing: ChatGPT is highly effective at summarizing long texts, transcripts, articles, and reports. It can condense lengthy content into concise summaries, making it a valuable tool for quickly extracting key information from extensive documents.

Prompt Example: “Please summarize the key findings from this 20-page research report on climate change.”

2. Brainstorming: ChatGPT assists in generating ideas, outlines, and new concepts. It can provide creative suggestions and help users explore different angles and approaches to various topics or projects.

Prompt Example: “Generate ideas for a marketing campaign promoting our new product.”

3. Synthesizing: This use case involves extracting insights and takeaways from the text. ChatGPT can analyze and consolidate information from multiple sources, helping users distill complex data into actionable conclusions.

Prompt Example: “Extract the main insights and recommendations from this business strategy document.”

4. Writing: ChatGPT can be a helpful tool for writing tasks, including blog posts, articles, press releases, and procedures. It can provide content suggestions, help with structuring ideas, and even generate draft text for various purposes.

Prompt Example: “Write a blog post about the benefits of regular exercise and healthy eating.”

5. Coding: For coding tasks, ChatGPT can assist in writing scripts and small programs. It can help with generating code snippets, troubleshooting programming issues, and offering coding-related advice.

Prompt Example: “Create a Python script that calculates the Fibonacci sequence up to the 20th term.”

6. Extracting: ChatGPT is capable of extracting data and patterns from messy text. This is particularly useful in data mining and analysis, where it can identify relevant information and relationships within unstructured text data.

Prompt Example: “Extract all email addresses from this unstructured text data.”

7. Reformatting: Another valuable use case is reformatting text or data from messy sources into structured formats or tables. ChatGPT can assist in converting disorganized information into organized and presentable formats.

Prompt Example: “Convert this messy financial data into a structured table with columns for date, transaction type, and amount.”


Read more about -> 10 innovative ways to monetize business using ChatGPT


Tones used in ChatGPT prompts

Tone: [x] Writing using [x] tone

1. Conversational

Description: Conversational tone is friendly, informal, and resembles everyday spoken language. It’s suitable for casual interactions and discussions.

Example prompt: “Can you explain the concept of blockchain technology in simple terms?”

2. Lighthearted

Description: Lighthearted tone adds a touch of humor, playfulness, and positivity to the content. It’s engaging and cheerful.

Example prompt: “Tell me a joke to brighten my day.”

3. Persuasive

Description: Persuasive tone aims to convince or influence the reader. It uses compelling language to present arguments and opinions.

Example prompt: “Write a persuasive article on the benefits of renewable energy.”

4. Spartan

Description: Spartan tone is minimalist and to the point. It avoids unnecessary details and focuses on essential information.

Example prompt: “Provide a brief summary of the key features of the new software update.”

5. Formal

Description: Formal tone is professional, structured, and often used in academic or business contexts. It maintains a serious and respectful tone.

Example prompt: “Compose a formal email to inquire about job opportunities at your company.”

6. Firm

Description: Firm tone is assertive and direct. It’s used when a clear and authoritative message needs to be conveyed.

Example prompt: “Draft a letter of complaint regarding the recent service issues with our internet provider.”

These tones can be adjusted to suit specific communication goals and audiences, offering a versatile way to interact with ChatGPT effectively in various situations.


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The format of prompts used in ChatGPT plays a crucial role in obtaining desired responses. Here are different formatting styles and their descriptions:

1. Be concise. Minimize excess prose

Description: This format emphasizes brevity and clarity. Avoid long-winded questions and get to the point.

Example: “Explain the concept of photosynthesis.”

2. Use less corporate jargon

Description: Simplify language and avoid technical or business-specific terms for a more understandable response.

Example: “Describe our company’s growth strategy without using industry buzzwords.”

3. Output as bullet points in short sentences

Description: Present prompts in a bullet-point format with short and direct sentences, making it easy for ChatGPT to understand and respond.


  • “Benefits of recycling:”
  • “Reduces pollution.”
  • “Conserves resources.”
  • “Saves energy.”


4. Output as a table with columns: (x). (y), (z). [a]

Description: Format prompts as a table with specified columns and content in a structured manner.


Item Quantity Price
Apple 5 $1.50
Banana 3 $0.75

5. Be extremely detailed

Description: Request comprehensive and in-depth responses with all relevant information.

Example: “Provide a step-by-step guide on setting up a home theater system, including product recommendations and wiring diagrams.”

Using these prompt formats effectively can help you receive more accurate and tailored responses from ChatGPT, improving the quality of information and insights provided. It’s essential to choose the right format based on your communication goals and the type of information you need


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Chained prompting

Chained prompting is a technique used with ChatGPT to break down complex tasks into multiple sequential steps, guiding the AI model to provide detailed and structured responses. In the provided example, here’s how chained prompting works:

1. Write an article about ChatGPT.

This is the initial prompt, requesting an article on a specific topic.

2. First give me the outline, which consists of a headline, a teaser, and several subheadings.

In response to the first prompt, ChatGPT is instructed to provide the outline of the article, which includes a headline, teaser, and subheadings.

[Output]: ChatGPT generates the outline as requested.

3. Now write 5 different subheadings.

After receiving the outline, the next step is to ask ChatGPT to generate five subheadings for the article.

[Output]: ChatGPT provides five subheadings for the article.

4. Add 5 keywords for each subheading.

Following the subheadings, ChatGPT is directed to add five keywords for each subheading to enhance the article’s SEO and content structure.

[Output]: ChatGPT generates keywords for each of the subheadings.

Chained prompting allows users to guide ChatGPT through a series of related tasks, ensuring that the generated content aligns with specific requirements. It’s a valuable technique for obtaining well-structured and detailed responses from the AI model, making it useful for tasks like content generation, outlining, and more.

This approach helps streamline the content creation process, starting with a broad request and progressively refining it until the desired output is achieved.

Prompts for designers

The prompts provided are designed to assist designers in various aspects of their work, from generating UI design requirements to seeking advice on conveying specific qualities through design. Here’s a description of each prompt:

1. Generate examples of UI design requirements for a [mobile app].

This prompt seeks assistance in defining UI design requirements for a mobile app. It helps designers outline the specific elements and features that should be part of the app’s user interface.

Example: UI design requirements for a mobile app could include responsive layouts, intuitive navigation, touch-friendly buttons, and accessible color schemes.

2. How can I design a [law firm website] in a way that conveys [trust and authority].

This prompt requests guidance on designing a law firm website that effectively communicates trust and authority, two essential qualities in the legal field.

Example: Design choices like a professional color palette, clear typography, client testimonials, and certifications can convey trust and authority.

3. What are some micro-interactions to consider when designing fintech app.

This prompt focuses on micro-interactions, small animations or feedback elements in a fintech app’s user interface that enhance user experience.

Example: Micro-interactions in a fintech app might include subtle hover effects on financial data, smooth transitions between screens, or informative tooltips.

4. Create a text-based excel sheet to input your copy suggestions. Assume you have 3 members in your UX writing team.

This prompt instructs the creation of a text-based Excel sheet for collaborative copywriting among a UX writing team.

Example: The Excel sheet can have columns for copy suggestions, status (e.g., draft, approved), author names, and deadlines, facilitating efficient content collaboration.

These prompts are valuable tools for designers, providing a structured approach to seeking assistance and generating ideas, whether it’s for UI design, conveying specific qualities, considering micro-interactions, or managing collaborative writing efforts. They help streamline the design process and ensure designers receive relevant and actionable guidance


These modes are designed to guide interactions with an AI, such as ChatGPT, in various ways, allowing users to leverage AI in different roles. Let’s describe each of these modes with examples:

1. Intern: “Come up with new fundraising ideas.”

In this mode, the AI acts as an intern, tasked with generating fresh ideas.

Example: Requesting fundraising ideas for a cause or organization.

2. Thought Partner: “What should we think about when generating new fundraising ideas?”

When set as a thought partner, the AI helps users brainstorm and consider key aspects of a task.

Example: Seeking guidance on the critical factors to consider when brainstorming fundraising ideas.

3. Critic: “Here’s a list of 10 fundraising ideas I created. Are there any I missed? Which ones seem particularly good or bad?”

In critic mode, the AI evaluates and provides feedback on a list of ideas or concepts.

Example: Requesting a critique of a list of fundraising ideas and identifying strengths and weaknesses.

4. Teacher: “Teach me about [xl. Assume I know [x] and adjust your language.”

This mode transforms the AI into a teacher, providing explanations and information.

Example: Asking the AI to teach a topic, adjusting the complexity of the language based on the user’s knowledge.


Read more about -> Prompt Engineering 


Prompts for marketers

These prompts are designed to assist marketers in various aspects of their work, from content creation to product descriptions and marketing strategies. Let’s describe each prompt and provide examples where necessary:

1. Can you provide me with some ideas for blog posts about [topics]?

This prompt seeks content ideas for blog posts, helping marketers generate engaging and relevant topics for their audience.

Example: Requesting blog post ideas about “content marketing strategies.”

2. Write a product description for my product or service or company.

This prompt is aimed at generating compelling product or service descriptions, essential for marketing materials.

Example: Asking for a product description for a new smartphone model.

3. Suggest inexpensive ways I can promote my [company] without using social media.”

This prompt focuses on cost-effective marketing strategies outside of social media to increase brand visibility.

Example: Seeking low-cost marketing ideas for a small bakery without using social media.

4. How can I obtain high-quality backlinks to raise the SEO of [website name]?

Here, the focus is on improving website SEO by acquiring authoritative backlinks, a crucial aspect of digital marketing.

Example: Inquiring about strategies to gain high-quality backlinks for an e-commerce website.

These prompts provide marketers with AI-driven assistance for a range of marketing tasks, from content creation to SEO optimization and cost-effective promotion strategies. They facilitate more efficient and creative marketing efforts.


Read about -> How to become a Prompt engineer in 10 steps


Prompts for developers

These prompts are designed to assist developers in various aspects of their work, from coding to debugging and implementing specific website features. Let’s describe each prompt and provide examples where needed:

1. Develop architecture and code for a (descriptions website with JavaScript.

This prompt asks developers to create both the architectural design and code for a website that likely involves presenting various descriptions using JavaScript.

Example: Requesting the development of a movie descriptions website with JavaScript.

2. Help me find mistakes in the following code <paste code below>>.

This prompt seeks assistance in identifying errors or bugs in a given piece of code that the developer will paste.

Example: Pasting a JavaScript code snippet with issues and asking for debugging help.

3. I want to implement a sticky header on my website. Can you provide an example using CSS and JavaScript?

Here, the developer requests an example of implementing a sticky (fixed-position) header on a website using a combination of CSS and JavaScript.

Example: Asking for a code example to create a sticky navigation bar for a webpage.

4. Please continue writing this code for JavaScript <post code below>>.

This prompt is for extending an existing JavaScript code snippet by providing additional code to complete a specific task.

Example: Extending JavaScript code for a form validation feature.

These prompts offer valuable assistance to developers, covering a range of tasks from website architecture and coding to debugging and implementing interactive features using JavaScript and CSS. They aim to streamline the development process and resolve coding challenges.

These modes offer flexibility in how users interact with AI, enabling them to tap into AI capabilities for various purposes, including idea generation, brainstorming, evaluation, and learning. They facilitate productive and tailored interactions with AI, making it a versatile tool for a wide range of tasks and roles.


Master ChatGPT to upscale your business

ChatGPT serves as a versatile tool for a wide range of tasks, leveraging its natural language processing capabilities to enhance productivity and streamline various processes. Users can harness its power to save time, improve content quality, and make sense of complex information.



Fine-tuning LLMs 101
Ruhma Khawaja
| September 1, 2023

Fine-tuning LLMs, or Large Language Models, involves adjusting the model’s parameters to suit a specific task by training it on relevant data, making it a powerful technique to enhance model performance.


Boosting model expertise and efficiency

Pre-trained large language models (LLMs) offer many capabilities but aren’t universal. When faced with a task beyond their abilities, fine-tuning is an option. This process involves retraining LLMs on new data. While it can be complex and costly, it’s a potent tool for organizations using LLMs. Understanding fine-tuning, even if not doing it yourself, aids in informed decision-making.

Large language models (LLMs) are pre-trained on massive datasets of text and code. This allows them to learn a wide range of tasks, such as text generation, translation, and question-answering. However, LLMs are often not well-suited for specific tasks without fine-tuning.

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Fine-tuning LLM

Fine-tuning is the process of adjusting the parameters of an LLM to a specific task. This is done by training the model on a dataset of data that is relevant to the task. The amount of fine-tuning required depends on the complexity of the task and the size of the dataset.

There are a number of ways to fine-tune LLMs. One common approach is to use supervised learning. This involves providing the model with a dataset of labeled data, where each data point is a pair of input and output. The model learns to map the input to the output by minimizing a loss function.

Another approach to fine-tuning LLMs is to use reinforcement learning. This involves providing the model with a reward signal for generating outputs that are desired. The model learns to generate desired outputs by maximizing the reward signal.

Fine-tuning LLMs can be a challenging task. However, it can be a very effective way to improve the performance of LLMs on specific tasks.




Improves the performance of LLMs on specific tasks. Computationally expensive.
Makes LLMs more domain-specific. Time-consuming.
Reduces the amount of data required to train an LLM. Difficult to find a good dataset for fine-tuning.
Makes LLMs more efficient to train. Difficult to tune the hyperparameters of the fine-tuning process.
Understanding fine-tuning LLMs
Understanding fine-tuning LLMs

Fine-tuning techniques for LLMs

Fine-tuning is the process of adjusting the parameters of an LLM to a specific task. This is done by training the model on a dataset of data that is relevant to the task. The amount of fine-tuning required depends on the complexity of the task and the size of the dataset. There are two main fine-tuning techniques for LLMs: repurposing and full fine-tuning.

1. Repurposing

Repurposing is a technique where you use an LLM for a task that is different from the task it was originally trained on. For example, you could use an LLM that was trained for text generation for sentiment analysis.

To repurpose an LLM, you first need to identify the features of the input data that are relevant to the task you want to perform. Then, you need to connect the LLM’s embedding layer to a classifier model that can learn to map these features to the desired output.

Repurposing is a less computationally expensive fine-tuning technique than full fine-tuning. However, it is also less likely to achieve the same level of performance.

Technique Description  

Computational Cost

Repurposing Use an LLM for a task that is different from the task it was originally trained on. Less Less
Full Fine-tuning Train the entire LLM on a dataset of data that is relevant to the task you want to perform. More More

2. Full Fine-Tuning

Full fine-tuning is a technique where you train the entire LLM on a dataset of data that is relevant to the task you want to perform. This is the most computationally expensive fine-tuning technique, but it is also the most likely to achieve the best performance.

To full fine-tune an LLM, you need to create a dataset of data that contains examples of the input and output for the task you want to perform. Then, you need to train the LLM on this dataset using a supervised learning algorithm.

The choice of fine-tuning technique depends on the specific task you want to perform and the resources you have available. If you are short on computational resources, you may want to consider repurposing. However, if you are looking for the best possible performance, you should full fine-tune the LLM.

Read more —> How to build and deploy custom llm application for your business

Unsupervised vs Supervised Fine-Tuning LLMs

Large language models (LLMs) are pre-trained on massive datasets of text and code. This allows them to learn a wide range of tasks, such as text generation, translation, and question-answering. However, LLMs are often not well-suited for specific tasks without fine-tuning.

Fine-tuning is the process of adjusting the parameters of an LLM to a specific task. This is done by training the model on a dataset of data that is relevant to the task. The amount of fine-tuning required depends on the complexity of the task and the size of the dataset.

There are two main types of fine-tuning for LLMs: unsupervised and supervised.

Unsupervised Fine-Tuning

Unsupervised fine-tuning is a technique where you train the LLM on a dataset of data that does not contain any labels. This means that the model does not know what the correct output is for each input. Instead, the model learns to predict the next token in a sequence or to generate text that is similar to the text in the dataset.

Unsupervised fine-tuning is a less computationally expensive fine-tuning technique than supervised fine-tuning. However, it is also less likely to achieve the same level of performance.

Supervised Fine-Tuning

Supervised fine-tuning is a technique where you train the LLM on a dataset of data that contains labels. This means that the model knows what the correct output is for each input. The model learns to map the input to the output by minimizing a loss function.

Supervised fine-tuning is a more computationally expensive fine-tuning technique than unsupervised fine-tuning. However, it is also more likely to achieve the best performance.

The choice of fine-tuning technique depends on the specific task you want to perform and the resources you have available. If you are short on computational resources, you may want to consider unsupervised fine-tuning. However, if you are looking for the best possible performance, you should supervise fine-tuning the LLM.

Here is a table that summarizes the key differences between unsupervised and supervised fine-tuning:

Technique Description Computational Cost Performance
Unsupervised Fine-tuning Train the LLM on a dataset of data that does not contain any labels. Less Less
Supervised Fine-tuning Train the LLM on a dataset of data that contains labels. More More

Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF) Parameter-Efficient Fine-Tuning (PEFT) for LLMs

There are two main approaches to fine-tuning LLMs: supervised fine-tuning and reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF).

1. Supervised Fine-Tuning

Supervised fine-tuning is a technique where you train the LLM on a dataset of data that contains labels. This means that the model knows what the correct output is for each input. The model learns to map the input to the output by minimizing a loss function.

2. Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF)

RLHF is a technique where you use human feedback to fine-tune the LLM. The basic idea is that you give the LLM a prompt and it generates an output. Then, you ask a human to rate the output. The rating is used as a signal to fine-tune the LLM to generate higher-quality outputs.

RLHF is a more complex and expensive fine-tuning technique than supervised fine-tuning. However, it can be more effective for tasks that are difficult to define or for which there is not enough labeled data.

Parameter-Efficient Fine-Tuning (PEFT)

PEFT is a set of techniques that try to reduce the number of parameters that need to be updated during fine-tuning. This can be done by using a smaller dataset, using a simpler model, or using a technique called low-rank adaptation (LoRA).

LoRA is a technique that uses a low-dimensional matrix to represent the space of the downstream task. This matrix is then fine-tuned instead of the entire LLM. This can significantly reduce the amount of computation required for fine-tuning.

PEFT is a promising approach for fine-tuning LLMs. It can make fine-tuning more affordable and efficient, which can make it more accessible to a wider range of users.

When not to use LLM fine-tuning

Large language models (LLMs) are pre-trained on massive datasets of text and code. This allows them to learn a wide range of tasks, such as text generation, translation, and question answering. However, LLM fine-tuning is not always necessary or desirable.

Here are some cases where you might not want to use LLM fine-tuning:

  • The model is not available for fine-tuning. Some LLMs are only available through application programming interfaces (APIs) that do not allow fine-tuning.
  • You don’t have enough data to fine-tune the model. Fine-tuning an LLM requires a large dataset of labeled data. If you don’t have enough data, you may not be able to achieve good results with fine-tuning.
  • The data is constantly changing. If the data that the LLM is being used on is constantly changing, fine-tuning may not be able to keep up. This is especially true for tasks such as machine translation, where the vocabulary and grammar of the source language can change over time.
  • The application is dynamic and context-sensitive. In some cases, the output of an LLM needs to be tailored to the specific context of the user or the situation. For example, a chatbot that is used in a customer service application would need to be able to understand the customer’s intent and respond accordingly. Fine-tuning an LLM for this type of application would be difficult, as it would require a large dataset of labeled data that captures the different contexts in which the chatbot would be used.

In these cases, you may want to consider using a different approach, such as:

  • Using a smaller, less complex model. Smaller models are less computationally expensive to train and fine-tune, and they may be sufficient for some tasks.
  • Using a transfer learning approach. Transfer learning is a technique where you use a model that has been trained on a different task to initialize a model for a new task. This can be a more efficient way to train a model for a new task, as it can help the model to learn faster.
  • Using in-context learning or retrieval augmentation. In-context learning or retrieval augmentation is a technique where you provide the LLM with context during inference time. This can help the LLM to generate more accurate and relevant outputs.

Wrapping up

In conclusion, fine-tuning LLMs is a powerful tool for tailoring these models to specific tasks. Understanding its nuances and options, including repurposing and full fine-tuning, helps optimize performance. The choice between supervised and unsupervised fine-tuning depends on resources and task complexity. Additionally, reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF) and parameter-efficient fine-tuning (PEFT) offer specialized approaches. While fine-tuning enhances LLMs, it’s not always necessary, especially if the model already fits the task. Careful consideration of when to use fine-tuning is essential in maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of LLMs for specific applications.


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NOOR, the new largest NLP Arabic language model
Data Science Dojo Staff
| August 31, 2023

Approximately 313 million people speak Arabic, making it the fifth most-spoken language globally.

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has made significant strides in the field of artificial intelligence and language technology by launching a large Arabic language model. This development involves the creation of advanced AI software, such as Jais, an open-source Arabic Large Language Model (LLM) with high-quality capabilities.

This initiative, driven by organizations like G42 and the Technology Innovation Institute (TII), aims to lead the Gulf region’s adoption of generative AI and elevate Arabic language processing in AI applications. The UAE’s commitment to developing cutting-edge technology like NOOR and Falcon demonstrates its determination to be a global leader in the field of AI and natural language processing.


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This initiative addresses the gap in the availability of advanced language models for Arabic speakers. Jais incorporates cutting-edge features such as ALiBi position embeddings, enabling it to handle longer inputs for better context handling and accuracy. The launch of Jais contributes to the acceleration of innovation in the Arab world by providing high-quality Arabic language capabilities for AI applications.


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Jaison is associated with G42, a company subsidiary of Inception, which has released an open-source AI model named “Jais,” an advanced Arabic Large Language Model (LLM). Jais is a transformer-based large language model designed to cater to the significant user base of Arabic speakers, estimated to be over 400 million.


Jais Arabic language model | Data Science Dojo
Source: Reddit

Use-cases for the newly introduced Arabic AI model

The Arabic language models, such as “Jais” and “AraGPT2,” are developed to advance the field of natural language processing and AI technology for the Arabic language. They will be used for various applications, including:

  • Enabling more accurate and efficient text generation and understanding in Arabic.
  • Enhancing communication and engagement between Arabic-speaking users and AI systems.
  • Facilitating language translation, sentiment analysis, and information extraction in Arabic content.
  • Boosting the development of AI-driven applications in fields like education, customer service, content creation, and more.
  • Expanding the accessibility of advanced AI technologies to the Arabic-speaking community.
  • Fostering innovation and research in Arabic language processing, contributing to the growth of AI in the Arab world.

These language models aim to bridge the gap in AI technology for Arabic speakers and empower a wide range of industries with improved language-related capabilities.


UAE businesses leveraging the Arabic language model

Businesses in the UAE can benefit from Arabic language models in several ways:

  • Enhanced Communication: Arabic language models enable businesses to communicate more effectively with Arabic-speaking customers, fostering better engagement and customer satisfaction.
  • Localized Content: Businesses can create localized marketing campaigns, advertisements, and content that resonates with the local audience, improving brand perception.
  • Customer Support: AI-powered chatbots and customer support systems can be developed in Arabic, providing immediate assistance to customers in their native language.
  • Content Generation: Arabic language models can assist in generating high-quality content in Arabic, from articles to social media posts, saving time and resources.
  • Data Analysis: Businesses can analyze Arabic-language data to gain insights into customer preferences, market trends, and sentiment, enabling informed decision-making.
  • Innovation: Arabic language models can fuel innovation in various sectors, from healthcare to finance, by providing advanced AI capabilities tailored to the local context.
  • Efficient Translation: Enterprises dealing with multilingual operations can benefit from accurate and efficient translation services for documents, contracts, and communication.
  • Educational Resources: Arabic language models can aid in developing educational resources, online courses, and e-learning platforms to cater to Arabic-speaking learners.

By leveraging Arabic language models like “Jais,” businesses can tap into the vast potential of AI to enhance their operations, communication, and growth strategies in the UAE and beyond.

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