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author image austin
Austin Gendron
| September 21

Imagine you’re a data scientist or a developer, and you’re about to embark on a new project. You’re excited, but there’s a problem – you need data, lots of it, and from various sources. You could spend hours, days, or even weeks scraping websites, cleaning data, and setting up databases.

Or you could use APIs and get all the data you need in a fraction of the time. Sounds like a dream, right? Well, it’s not. Welcome to the world of APIs! 

Application Programming Interfaces are like secret tunnels that connect different software applications, allowing them to communicate and share data with each other. They are the unsung heroes of the digital world, quietly powering the apps and services we use every day.


Learn in detail about –> RestAPI


For data scientists, these are not just convenient; they are also a valuable source of untapped data. 

Let’s dive into three powerful APIs that will not only make your life easier but also take your data science projects to the next level. 


Master 3 APIs
Master 3 APIs – Data Science Dojo

RapidAPI – The ultimate API marketplace 

Now, imagine walking into a supermarket, but instead of groceries, the shelves are filled with APIs. That’s RapidAPI for you! It’s a one-stop-shop where you can find, connect, and manage thousands of APIs across various categories. 

Learn more details about RapidAPI:

  • RapidAPI is a platform that provides access to a wide range of APIs. It offers both free and premium APIs.
  • RapidAPI simplifies API integration by providing a single dashboard to manage multiple APIs.
  • Developers can use RapidAPI to access APIs for various purposes, such as data retrieval, payment processing, and more.
  • It offers features like Application Programming Interfaces key management, analytics, and documentation.
  • RapidAPI is a valuable resource for developers looking to enhance their applications with third-party services.


All you need is an HTTP client like Postman or a library in your favorite programming language (Python’s requests, JavaScript’s fetch, etc.), and a RapidAPI account. 


Read more about the basics of APIs


Steps to manage the project 

  • Identify: Think of it as window shopping. Browse through the RapidAPI marketplace and find the API that fits your needs. 
  • Subscribe: Just like buying a product, some APIs are free, while others require a subscription. 
  • Integrate: Now, it’s time to bring your purchase home. Use the provided code snippets to integrate the Application Programming Interfaces into your application. 
  • Test: Make sure your new Application Programming Interfaces works well with your application. 
  • Monitor: Keep an eye on your API’s usage and performance using RapidAPI’s dashboard. 

Use cases 

  • Sentiment analysis: Analyze social media posts or customer reviews to understand public sentiment about a product or service. 
  • Stock market predictions: Predict future stock market trends by analyzing historical stock prices. 
  • Image recognition: Build an image recognition system that can identify objects in images. 


Tomorrow.io Weather API – Your personal weather station 

Ever wished you could predict the weather? With the Tomorrow.io Weather API, you can do just that and more! It provides access to real-time, forecast, and historical weather data, offering over 60 different weather data fields. 

Here are some other details about Tomorrow.io Weather API:

  • Tomorrow.io (formerly known as ClimaCell) Weather API provides weather data and forecasts for developers.
  • It offers hyper-local weather information, including minute-by-minute precipitation forecasts.
  • Developers can access weather data such as current conditions, hourly and daily forecasts, and severe weather alerts.
  • The API is often used in applications that require accurate and up-to-date weather information, including weather apps, travel apps, and outdoor activity planners.
  • Integration with Tomorrow.io Weather API can help users stay informed about changing weather conditions.



You’ll need an HTTP client to make requests, a JSON parser to handle the response, and a Tomorrow.io account to get your Application Programming Interface key. 

Steps to manage the project 

  • Register: Sign up for a Tomorrow.io account and get your personal API key. 
  • Make a Request: Use your key to ask the Tomorrow.io Weather API for the weather data you need. 
  • Parse the Response: The Application Programming Interface will send back data in JSON format, which you’ll need to parse to extract the information you need. 
  • Integrate the Data: Now, you can integrate the weather data into your application or model. 

Use cases 

  • Weather forecasting: Build your own weather forecasting application. 
  • Climate research: Study climate change patterns using historical weather data. 
  • Agricultural planning: Help farmers plan their planting and harvesting schedules based on weather forecasts. 

Google Maps API – The world at your fingertips 

The Google Maps API is like having a personal tour guide that knows every nook and cranny of the world. It provides access to a wealth of geographical and location-based data, including maps, geocoding, places, routes, and more. 

Below are some key details about Google Maps API:

  • Google Maps API is a suite of APIs provided by Google for integrating maps and location-based services into applications.
  • Developers can use Google Maps APIs to embed maps, find locations, calculate directions, and more in their websites and applications.
  • Some of the popular Google Maps APIs include Maps JavaScript, Places, and Geocoding.
  • To use Google Maps APIs, developers need to obtain an API key from the Google Cloud Platform Console.
  • These Application Programming Interfaces are commonly used in web and mobile applications to provide users with location-based information and navigation



You’ll need an HTTP client, a JSON parser, and a Google Cloud account to get your API key. 

Steps to manage the project 

  • Get an API Key: Sign up for a Google Cloud account and enable the Google Maps API to get your key. 
  • Make a Request: Use your Application Programming Interface key to ask the Google Maps API for the geographical data you need. 
  • Handle the Response: The API will send back data in JSON format, which you’ll need to parse to extract the information you need. 
  • Use the Data: Now, you can integrate the geographical data into your application or model. 

Use cases 

  • Location-Based services: Build applications that offer services based on the user’s location. 
  • Route planning: Help users find the best routes between multiple destinations. 
  • Local business search: Help users find local businesses based on their queries. 

Your challenge – Create your own data-driven project 

Now that you’re equipped with the knowledge of these powerful APIs, it’s time to put that knowledge into action. We challenge you to create your own data-driven project using one or more of these. 

Perhaps you could build a weather forecasting app that helps users plan their outdoor activities using the Tomorrow.io Weather API. Or maybe you could create a local business search tool using the Google Maps API.

You could even combine Application Programming Interfaces to create something unique, like a sentiment analysis tool that uses the RapidAPI marketplace to analyze social media reactions to different weather conditions. 

Remember, the goal here is not just to build something but to learn and grow as a data scientist or developer. Don’t be afraid to experiment, make mistakes, and learn from them. That’s how you truly master a skill. 

So, are you ready to take on the challenge? We can’t wait to see what you’ll create. Remember, the only limit is your imagination. Good luck! 

Improve your data science project efficiency with APIs 

In conclusion, APIs are like magic keys that unlock a world of data for your projects. By mastering these three Application Programming Interfaces, you’ll not only save time but also uncover insights that can make your projects shine. So, what are you waiting for? Start the challenge now by exploring these. Experience the full potential of data science with us. 


Data Science Dojo
Fiza Fatima
| July 27

Python is a versatile programming language known for its simplicity and readability. It has gained immense popularity among developers due to its wide range of libraries and frameworks. 

If you’re looking to sharpen your Python skills and take on exciting projects, we’ve compiled a list of 16 Python projects that cover various domains, including communication, gaming, management systems, and more. Let’s dive in and explore these projects!

16 Python projects you need to master for success

Python projects
Python projects

1. Email sender:

The Email Sender project introduces learners to Python’s capabilities for automating email communication. With this project, users can create a program that sends emails automatically, making it a practical email assistant.

The Python script can be customized to include recipient email addresses, subject lines, and personalized message content. This project is ideal for sending newsletters, notifications, or any type of bulk email communication without the need for manual intervention.

2. SMS sender:

The SMS Sender project parallels the Email Sender project but focuses on sending text messages using Python. By leveraging this project, learners can develop a Python script that communicates with an SMS service provider to deliver text messages to recipients’ mobile numbers.

Businesses often utilize this functionality to send order updates, appointment reminders, or time-sensitive alerts directly to their customers’ phones. For a real-world scenario, consider a restaurant that wants to send promotional offers or reservation confirmations to its customers via SMS.

3.School management:

The School Management project aims to create a digital school organizer using Python. With this project, users can build a simple system to manage student-related information efficiently. The Python program can handle student attendance records, grades, and basic details, making it a valuable tool for teachers or school administrators.

In practical use, the School Management project can benefit educational institutions by offering a digital platform for organizing student data. For example, teachers can use it to track and update student attendance, input grades, and retrieve student information when required.

4. Online quiz system:

The Online Quiz System project involves creating a web-based application that allows users to participate in quizzes or tests online. With Python and web development frameworks like Django or Flask, learners can build a dynamic platform where administrators can create quizzes and manage questions.

On the other hand, users can take the quizzes and receive instant feedback on their performance. The system can include features such as user authentication, timed quizzes, multiple-choice questions, scoring mechanisms, and the ability to review past quiz results.

5. Video editor:

The Video Editor project using Python aims to teach users how to manipulate and edit video files programmatically. By leveraging Python libraries like OpenCV and MoviePy, learners can implement functionalities such as trimming, merging, overlaying text or images, applying filters, and adding audio to videos.

The project can also introduce techniques like video stabilization, object tracking, and green screen effects for more advanced video editing capabilities.

6. Ticket reservation:

The Ticket Reservation project revolves around creating a straightforward system for reserving tickets for events or travel purposes. Using Python, learners can build a command-line or GUI application that allows users to browse available events or travel options and book tickets for specific dates and seats. The system can handle seat availability, generate booking confirmations, and manage payment processing if desired.

7. Tic-Tac-Toe:

The Tic-Tac-Toe project is a classic game implementation suitable for beginners learning Python programming. Learners can create a command-line or graphical version of the game, where two players take turns marking X and O symbols on a 3×3 grid. Python allows users to implement the game logic, handle user input, and check for win conditions or a draw to determine the winner.

8. Security software:

The Security Software project focuses on building simple security applications using Python to address common security concerns.

For instance, learners can develop a password manager that securely stores user passwords and generates strong, unique passwords for various accounts. Alternatively, they can create a basic firewall application to control incoming and outgoing network traffic based on specified rules, providing an added layer of protection for the user’s system.

9. Automatic driver:

The Automatic Driver project teaches users how to create a program that automates certain tasks on their computer. Learners can implement the program using Python and relevant libraries to schedule and execute tasks such as starting and stopping the computer at specific times, automatically updating installed software or system drivers, and performing other routine actions without manual intervention. This project can be a stepping stone to more complex automation and scripting tasks.

10. Playing with Cards:

Playing with Cards is a Python project that aims to teach users how to interact with and manipulate playing cards programmatically. The project provides the foundation to create various card games, ranging from simple ones to more intricate and complex card games.

Using Python’s functionalities, learners can implement card shuffling, dealing, and managing player hands. They can also design and program game-specific rules and logic to enhance the gaming experience.

11. Professional calculator:

The Professional Calculator project in Python aims to equip users with the knowledge and skills to develop a feature-rich calculator application. By utilizing Python’s capabilities, learners can construct a user-friendly interface that supports basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

In addition to these fundamental features, the calculator can incorporate more advanced functionalities, such as scientific calculations (trigonometry, logarithms, etc.), memory storage, unit conversion, and support for complex expressions with parentheses and operator precedence.

12. Email client:

The Email Client project using Python guides learners in building a functional email management system. With Python’s libraries and APIs, users can create a program that enables sending and receiving emails from popular email providers via SMTP and IMAP protocols. The email client can support features like composing and formatting emails, attaching files, managing folders, handling multiple email accounts, and implementing robust security measures like encryption and authentication.

13. Data visualization:

Data Visualization in Python is a project that introduces users to techniques for visually representing data sets. With the help of Python’s data manipulation and visualization libraries, learners can create informative and visually appealing charts, graphs, and plots.

The project allows users to explore different types of data visualizations, including bar charts, line plots, scatter plots, heatmaps, and more. Furthermore, users can apply advanced techniques like interactive visualizations, animation, and customizing visual elements to effectively communicate insights from complex data sets.

14. Hospital management:

The Hospital Management project aims to develop a straightforward yet efficient hospital management system using Python. Through Python’s capabilities, learners can create a program that facilitates patient record management, appointment scheduling, and other essential functionalities in a healthcare setting.

The system can store and organize patient details, medical history, doctor information, and appointment schedules. Additionally, it can incorporate features for generating reports, managing inventory, and ensuring data privacy and security compliance.

15. Education system:

The education system project is a hands-on endeavor that empowers you to build a comprehensive and user-friendly platform for managing student information. You’ll learn how to design databases, implement data storage, and develop functions to track student records, grades, and other relevant data.

This project offers valuable insights into effective data organization and management within the context of an educational setting, equipping you with practical skills that can be applied to real-world scenarios.

16. Face Recognition:

The face recognition project is an exciting opportunity to explore the fascinating field of computer vision and artificial intelligence. Using Python, you’ll delve into the algorithms and techniques that enable machines to identify and distinguish human faces from images or video streams. Starting with simple face detection, you’ll progress to advanced topics such as facial feature extraction and matching.

This project allows you to create a range of applications, from basic face recognition programs for security purposes to more sophisticated systems incorporating facial emotion analysis or even facial expression generation.

Top Python projects to elevate your skills
Top Python projects to elevate your skills

Additional tips for working on Python projects

These are just a few of the many Python projects that you can work on. If you’re looking for more ideas, there are plenty of resources available online. With a little effort, you can create some amazing Python projects that will help you learn the language and build your skills.

Here are some additional tips for working on Python projects:

  • Start with simple projects and gradually work your way up to more complex projects.
  • Use online resources to find help and documentation.
  • Don’t be afraid to experiment and try new things.
  • Have fun!

If you want to start a career in data science using Python, we recommend you to go through this extensive bootcamp.


Embarking on Python projects is an excellent way to enhance your programming skills and delve into various domains. The 16 projects mentioned in this blog provide a diverse range of applications to challenge yourself and explore new possibilities.

Whether you’re interested in communication, gaming, management systems, or data analysis, these projects will help you develop practical Python skills and expand your portfolio.

So, choose a project that excites you the most and starts coding! Happy programming!

I hope this blog post has given you some ideas for Python projects that you can work on. If you have any questions, please feel free to comment below.

Data Science Dojo
Fiza Fatima
| July 12

Welcome to the world of databases, where the choice between SQL (Structured Query Language) and NoSQL (Not Only SQL) databases can be a significant decision. 

Both SQL databases and NoSQL databases have their own unique characteristics and advantages, and understanding which one suits your needs is essential for a successful application or project.

In this blog, we’ll explore the defining traits, benefits, use cases, and key factors to consider when choosing between SQL and NoSQL databases. So, let’s dive in!


SQL Database

SQL databases are relational databases that store data in tables. Each table has a set of columns, and each column has a specific data type. SQL databases are well-suited for storing structured data, such as customer records, product inventory, and financial transactions.

Some of the benefits of SQL databases include:

  • Strong consistency and data integrity: SQL databases enforce data integrity constraints, such as ensuring that no two customers can have the same customer ID.
  • ACID properties for transactional support: SQL databases support ACID transactions, which guarantee that all or none of a set of database operations are performed. This is important for applications that require a high degree of data integrity, such as banking and financial services.
  • Ability to perform complex queries using SQL: SQL is a powerful language that allows you to perform complex queries on your data. This can be useful for tasks such as reporting, analytics, and data mining.

Some of the popular SQL databases include:

  • MySQL
  • PostgreSQL
  • Oracle
  • Microsoft SQL Server

To understand which SQL database will work best for you, hop on to this video. 

Data Storage Systems: Taking a look at Redshift, MySQL, PostGreSQL, Hadoop and others

NoSQL Databases

NoSQL databases are a type of database that does not use the traditional relational model. NoSQL databases are designed to store and manage large amounts of unstructured data.

Some of the benefits of NoSQL databases include:

  • Scalability and high performance: NoSQL databases are designed to scale horizontally, which means that they can be easily increased in size by adding more nodes. This makes them well-suited for applications that need to handle large amounts of data.
  • Flexibility in handling unstructured data: NoSQL databases are not limited to storing structured data. They can also store unstructured data, such as text, images, and videos. This makes them well-suited for applications that deal with large amounts of multimedia data.
  • Horizontal scalability through sharding and replication: NoSQL databases can be horizontally scaled by sharding the data across multiple nodes. This means that the data is divided into smaller pieces and stored on different nodes. Replication is the process of copying the data to multiple nodes. This ensures that the data is always available, even if one node fails.

Some of the popular NoSQL databases include:

  • MongoDB
  • Cassandra
  • DynamoDB
  • Redis

If you have just started off using SQL, you can use this comprehensive SQL guide for beginners – SQL Crash Course for Beginners

Usage for each database

Now, let’s dive into the crux of the argument whereby we explore the cases where SQL databases work best and cases where NoSQL databases shine.

SQL databases excel in scenarios that require:

  • Complex transactions with strict consistency requirements, such as financial systems or e-commerce platforms.
  • Applications that heavily rely on relational data models, with interconnected data that necessitate robust integrity and relational operations.

NoSQL databases are well-suited for:

  • Big data analytics and real-time streaming applications demand high scalability and performance.
  • Content management systems, social media platforms, and IoT applications handle diverse and unstructured data types.
  • Applications requiring rapid prototyping and agile development due to their schema flexibility.

Real-world examples highlight the versatility of SQL and NoSQL databases. SQL databases power major banking systems, airline reservation systems, and enterprise resource planning (ERP) solutions. NoSQL databases are commonly used by social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter, as well as streaming services like Netflix and Spotify.

Factors to Consider

Choosing between SQL and NoSQL databases can be a daunting task. With each option offering its own unique set of advantages, it’s important to consider several key factors before making a decision. These factors will help guide you towards the right database that aligns with your project’s requirements. 

  • Data structure: Evaluate whether your data has a well-defined structure and follows a relational model or if it is dynamic and unstructured.
  • Scalability requirements: Consider the expected growth and scalability needs of your application. Determine if horizontal scalability through techniques like sharding and replication is crucial.
  • Consistency requirements: Assess the level of consistency needed for your application. Determine if strong consistency or eventual consistency is more suitable.
  • Development flexibility: Evaluate the flexibility required to adapt to changing data structures. Consider whether a rigid schema or schema flexibility is more important for your project.
  • Integration requirements: Assess the compatibility of the database with your existing infrastructure and tools. Consider factors such as support for APIs, data connectors, and integration capabilities.


In the SQL vs. NoSQL debate, there is no one-size-fits-all answer. Each database type offers unique benefits and is suited for different use cases. Understanding your specific requirements, such as data structure, scalability, consistency, and development flexibility, is crucial in making an informed decision.

Recapitulating the main points discussed, SQL databases provide strong consistency, ACID compliance, and robust query capabilities, making them ideal for transactional systems. NoSQL databases offer scalability, flexibility with unstructured data, and high performance, making them well-suited for big data, real-time analytics, and applications with evolving data requirements.

Ultimately, it is encouraged to thoroughly evaluate your needs, consider the factors mentioned, and choose the appropriate database solution that aligns with your project’s objectives and requirements. In some cases, a hybrid approach combining SQL and NoSQL databases may be suitable to leverage the strengths of both worlds and cater to specific use cases.


Data Science Dojo
Sonya Newson
| July 7

In the technology-driven world we inhabit, two skill sets have risen to prominence and are a hot topic: coding vs data science. At first glance, they may seem like two sides of the same coin, but a closer look reveals distinct differences and unique career opportunities.  

This article aims to demystify these domains, shedding light on what sets them apart, the essential skills they demand, and how to navigate a career path in either field.

What is Coding?

Coding, or programming, forms the backbone of our digital universe. In essence, coding is the process of using a language that a computer can understand to develop software, apps, websites, and more.  

The variety of programming languages, including Python, Java, JavaScript, and C++, cater to different project needs.  Each has its niche, from web development to systems programming. 

  • Python, for instance, is loved for its simplicity and versatility. 
  • JavaScript, on the other hand, is the lifeblood of interactive web pages. 
Coding vs Data Science
Coding vs Data Science

Coding goes beyond just software creation, impacting fields as diverse as healthcare, finance, and entertainment. Imagine a day without apps like Google Maps, Netflix, or Excel – that’s a world without coding! 

What is Data Science? 

While coding builds digital platforms, data science is about making sense of the data those platforms generate. Data Science intertwines statistics, problem-solving, and programming to extract valuable insights from vast data sets.  

This discipline takes raw data, deciphers it, and turns it into a digestible format using various tools and algorithms. Tools such as Python, R, and SQL help to manipulate and analyze data. Algorithms like linear regression or decision trees aid in making data-driven predictions.   

In today’s data-saturated world, data science plays a pivotal role in fields like marketing, healthcare, finance, and policy-making, driving strategic decision-making with its insights. 

Essential Skills for Coding

Coding demands a unique blend of creativity and analytical skills. Mastering a programming language is just the tip of the iceberg. A skilled coder must understand syntax, but also demonstrate logical thinking, problem-solving abilities, and attention to detail. 

Logical thinking and problem-solving are crucial for understanding program flow and structure, as well as debugging and adding features. Persistence and independent learning are valuable traits for coders, given technology’s constant evolution.

Understanding algorithms is like mastering maps, with each algorithm offering different paths to solutions. Data structures, like arrays, linked lists, and trees, are versatile tools in coding, each with its unique capabilities.

Mastering these allows coders to handle data with the finesse of a master sculptor, crafting software that’s both efficient and powerful. But the adventure doesn’t end there.

But fear not, for debugging skills are the secret weapons coders wild to tame these critters.  Like a detective solving a mystery, coders use debugging to follow the trail of these bugs, understand their moves, and fix the disruption they’ve caused. In the end, persistence and adaptability complete a coder’s arsenal. 

Essential Skills for Data Science

Data Science, while incorporating coding, demands a different skill set. Data scientists need a strong foundation in statistics and mathematics to understand the patterns in data.  

Proficiency in tools like Python, R, SQL, and platforms like Hadoop or Spark is essential for data manipulation and analysis. Statistics helps data scientists to estimate, predict and test hypotheses.

Knowledge of Python or R is crucial to implement machine learning models and visualize data. Data scientists also need to be effective communicators, as they often present their findings to stakeholders with limited technical expertise.

Career Paths: Coding vs Data Science

The fields of coding and data science offer exciting and varied career paths. Coders can specialize as front-end, back-end, or full-stack developers, among others. Data science, on the other hand, offers roles as data analysts, data engineers, or data scientists. 

Whether you’re figuring out how to start coding or exploring data science, knowing your career path can help streamline your learning process and set realistic goals. 

Comparison: Coding vs Data Science 

While both coding and data science are deeply intertwined with technology, they differ significantly in their applications, demands, and career implications. 

Coding primarily revolves around creating and maintaining software, while data science is focused on extracting meaningful information from data. The learning curve also varies. Coding can be simpler to begin with, as it requires mastery of a programming language and its syntax.  

Data science, conversely, needs a broader skill set including statistics, data manipulation, and knowledge of various tools. However, the demand and salary potential in both fields are highly promising, given the digitalization of virtually every industry. 

Choosing Between Coding and Data Science 

Coding vs data science depends largely on personal interests and career aspirations. If building software and apps appeals to you, coding might be your path. If you’re intrigued by data and driving strategic decisions, data science could be the way to go. 

It’s also crucial to consider market trends. Demand in AI, machine learning, and data analysis is soaring, with implications for both fields. 

Transitioning from Coding to Data Science (and vice versa)

Transitions between coding and data science are common, given the overlapping skill sets.    

Coders looking to transition into data science may need to hone their statistical knowledge, while data scientists transitioning to coding would need to deepen their understanding of programming languages. 

Regardless of the path you choose, continuous learning and adaptability are paramount in these ever-evolving fields. 


In essence, coding vs data science or both are crucial gears in the technology machine.  Whether you choose to build software as a coder or extract insights as a data scientist, your work will play a significant role in shaping our digital world.  

So, delve into these exciting fields and discover where your passion lies. 

Areesha Afzal - Author
Areesha Afzal
| June 13

The Python Requests library is the go-to solution for making HTTP requests in Python, thanks to its elegant and intuitive API that simplifies the process of interacting with web services and consuming data in the application.

With the Requests library, you can easily send a variety of HTTP requests without worrying about the underlying complexities. It is a human-friendly HTTP Library that is incredibly easy to use, and one of its notable benefits is that it eliminates the need to manually add the query string to the URL.

Requests library
Requests library

HTTP Methods

When an HTTP request is sent, it returns a Response Object containing all the data related to the server’s response to the request. The Response object encapsulates a variety of information about the response, including the content, encoding, status code, headers, and more.

GET is one of the most frequently used HTTP methods, as it enables you to retrieve data from a specified resource. To make a GET request, you can use the requests.get() method.

>> response = requests.get(‘https://api.github.com’)

The simplicity of Requests’ API means that all forms of HTTP requests are straightforward. For example, this is how you make an HTTP POST request:

>> r = requests.post(‘https://httpbin.org/post’, data={‘key’: ‘value’})

POST requests are commonly used when submitting data from forms or uploading files. These requests are intended for creating or updating resources, and allow larger amounts of data to be sent in a single request. This is an overview of what Request can do.

Real-world applications

Requests library’s simplicity and flexibility make it a valuable tool for a wide range of web-related tasks in Python, here are few basic applications of requests library:

1. Web scraping:

Web scraping involves extracting data from websites by fetching the HTML content of web pages and then parsing and analyzing that content to extract specific information. The Requests library is used to make HTTP requests to the desired web pages and retrieve the HTML content. Once the HTML content is obtained, you can use libraries like BeautifulSoup to parse the HTML and extract the relevant data.

2. API integration:

Many web services and platforms provide APIs that allow you to retrieve or manipulate data. With the Requests library, you can make HTTP requests to these APIs, send parameters, headers, and handle the responses to integrate external data into your Python applications. We can also integrate the OpenAI ChatGPT API with the Requests library by making HTTP POST requests to the API endpoint and send the conversation as input to receive model-generated responses.

3. File download/upload:

You can download files from URLs using the Requests library. It supports streaming and allows you to efficiently download large files. Similarly, you can upload files to a server by sending multipart/form-data requests. requests.get() method is used to send a GET request to the specified URL to download large files, whereas, requests.post() method is used to send a POST request to the specified URL for uploading a file, you can easily retrieve files from URLs or send files to a server. This is useful for tasks such as downloading images, PDFs, or other resources from the web or uploading files to web applications or APIs that support file uploads.

4. Data collection and monitoring:

Requests can be used to fetch data from different sources at regular intervals by setting up a loop to fetch data periodically. This is useful for data collection, monitoring changes in web content, or tracking real-time data from APIs.

5. Web testing and automation:

Requests can be used for testing web applications by simulating various HTTP requests and verifying the responses. The Requests library enables you to automate web tasks such as logging into websites, submitting forms, or interacting with APIs. You can send the necessary HTTP requests, handle the responses, and perform further actions based on the results. This helps in streamlining testing processes, automating repetitive tasks, and interacting with web services programmatically.

6. Authentication and session management:

Requests provides built-in support for handling different types of authentication mechanisms, including Basic Auth, OAuth, and JWT, allowing you to authenticate and manage sessions when interacting with web services or APIs. This allows you to interact securely with web services and APIs that require authentication for accessing protected resources.

7. Proxy and SSL handling

Requests provides built-in support for working with proxies, enabling you to route your requests through different IP addresses, by passing the ‘proxies’ parameter with the proxy dictionary to the request method, you can route the request through the specified proxy, if your proxy requires authentication, you can include the username and password in the proxy URL. It also handles SSL/TLS certificates and allows you to verify or ignore SSL certificates during HTTPS requests, this flexibility enables you to work with different network configurations and ensure secure communication while interacting with web services and APIs.

8. Microservices and serverless architecture

In microservices or serverless architectures, where components communicate over HTTP, the Requests library can be used to make requests between different services, establish communication between different services, retrieve data from other endpoints, or trigger actions in external services. This allows for seamless integration and collaboration between components in a distributed architecture, enabling efficient data exchange and service orchestration.

Best practices for using the Requests library

Here are some of the practices that are needed to be followed to make good use of Requests Library.

1. Use session objects

Session object persists parameters and cookies across multiple requests being made. It allows connection pooling which means that instead of creating a new connection every time you make a request, it holds onto the existing connection and saves time. In this way, it helps to gain significant performance improvements.

2. Handle errors and exceptions

It is important to handle errors and exceptions while making requests. The errors can include problems with the network, issues on the server, or receiving unexpected or invalid responses. You can handle these errors using try-except block and the exception classes in the Requests library.

By using try-except block, you can anticipate potential errors and instruct the program on how to handle them. In case of built-in exception classes you can catch specific exceptions and handle them accordingly. For example, you can catch a network-related error using the requests.exceptions.RequestException class, or handle server errors with the requests.exceptions.HTTPError class.

3. Configure headers and authentication

The Requests library offers powerful features for configuring headers and handling authentication during HTTP requests. HTTP headers serve an important purpose in communicating specific instructions and information between a client (such as a web browser or an API consumer) and a server. These headers are particularly useful for tailoring the server’s response according to the client’s needs.

One common use case for HTTP headers is to specify the desired format of the response. By including an appropriate header, you can indicate to the server the preferred format, such as JSON or XML, in which you would like to receive the data. This allows the server to tailor the response accordingly, ensuring compatibility with your application or system.

Headers are also instrumental in providing authentication credentials. The Requests library supports various authentication methods, such as Basic Auth, OAuth, or using API keys.
It is crucial to ensure that you include necessary headers and provide the required authentication credentials while interacting with web services, it helps you to establish secure and successful communication with the server.

4. Leverage response handling

The Response object that is received after making a request using Requests library, you need to handle and process the response data effectively. There are various methods to access and extract the required information from the response.
For example, parsing JSON data, accessing headers, and handling binary data.

5. Utilize timeout

When making requests to a remote server using methods like ‘requests.get’ or ‘requests.put’, it is important to consider potential for long response times or connectivity issues. Without a timeout parameter, these requests may hang for an extended period, which can be problematic for backend systems that require prompt data processing and responses.
For this purpose, it is recommended to set a timeout when making the HTTP requests using the timeout parameter, it helps to prevent the code from hanging indefinitely and raise the TimeoutException indicating that request has taken longer tie than the specified timeout period.

Overall, the requests library provides a powerful and flexible API for interacting with web services and APIs, making it a crucial tool for any Python developer working with web data.

Wrapping up

As we wrap up this blog, it is clear that the Requests library is an invaluable tool for any developer working with HTTP-based applications. Its ease of use, flexibility, and extensive functionality makes it an essential component in any developer’s toolkit

Whether you’re building a simple web scraper or a complex API client, Requests provides a robust and reliable foundation on which to build your application. Its practical usefulness cannot be overstated, and its widespread adoption within the developer community is a testament to its power and flexibility.

In summary, the Requests library is an essential tool for any developer working with HTTP-based applications. Its intuitive API, extensive functionality, and robust error handling make it a go-to choice for developers around the world.


Data Science Dojo
Nimrah Sohail
| June 2

Postman is a popular collaboration platform for API development used by developers all over the world. It is a powerful tool that simplifies the process of testing, documenting, and sharing APIs.

Postman provides a user-friendly interface that enables developers to interact with RESTful APIs and streamline their API development workflow. In this blog post, we will discuss the different HTTP methods, and how they can be used with Postman.

Postman and Python
Postman and Python

HTTP Methods

HTTP methods are used to specify the type of action that needs to be performed on a resource. There are several HTTP methods available, including GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, and PATCH. Each method has a specific purpose and is used in different scenarios:

  • GET is used to retrieve data from an API.
  • POST is used to create new data in an API.
  • PUT is used to update existing data in an API.
  • DELETE is used to delete data from an API.
  • PATCH is used to partially update existing data in an API.

1. GET Method

The GET method is used to retrieve information from the server. It is the most used HTTP method and is used to retrieve data from a server.   

In Postman, you can use the GET method to retrieve data from an API endpoint. To use the GET method, you need to specify the URL in the request bar and click on the Send button. Here are step-by-step instructions for making requests using GET: 

 In this tutorial, we are using the following URL:

Step 1:  

Create a new request by clicking + in the workbench to open a new tab.  

Step 2: 

Enter the URL of the API that we want to test. 

Step 3: 

Select the “GET” method. 

Get Method Step 3
Get Method Step 3

Click the “Send” button. 

2. POST Method

The POST method is used to send data to the server. It is commonly used to create new resources on the server. In Postman, you can use the POST method to send data to the server. To use the POST method, you need to specify the URL in the request. Here are step-by-step instructions for making requests using POST

  1. Create a new request.
  2. Enter the URL of the API that you want to test.
  3. Select the “POST” method.
  4. Add any additional headers or parameters to the request.
  5. Click the “Send” button.

3. PUT Method

PUT is used to update existing data in an API. In Postman, you can use the PUT method to update existing data in an API by selecting the “PUT” method from the drop-down menu next to the “Method” field.

You can also add data to the request body by clicking the “Body” tab and selecting the “raw” radio button. Here are step-by-step instructions for making requests using PUT

  1. Create a new request.
  2. Enter the URL of the API that you want to test.
  3. Select the “PUT” method.
  4. Add any additional headers or parameters to the request.
  5. Click the “Send” button.

4. DELETE Method

DELETE is used to delete existing data in an API. In Postman, you can use the DELETE method to delete existing data in an API by selecting the “DELETE” method from the drop-down menu next to the “Method” field. Here are step-by-step instructions for making requests using DELETE

  1. Create a new request.
  2. Enter the URL of the API that you want to test.
  3. Select the “DELETE” method.
  4. Add any additional headers or parameters to the request.
  5. Click the “Send” button.

5. PATCH Method

PATCH is used to partially update existing data in an API. In Postman, you can use the PATCH method to partially update existing data in an API by selecting the “PATCH” method from the drop-down menu next to the “Method” field.

You can also add data to the request body by clicking the “Body” tab and selecting the “raw” radio button. Here are step-by-step instructions for making requests using PATCH:

  1. Create a new request.
  2. Enter the URL of the API that you want to test.
  3. Select the “PATCH” method.
  4. Add any additional headers or parameters to the request.
  5. Click the “Send” button.

Why Postman and Python are useful together

With the Postman Python library, developers can create and send requests, manage collections and environments, and run tests. The library also provides a command-line interface (CLI) for interacting with Postman APIs from the terminal. 

How does Postman work with REST APIs? 

  • Creating Requests: Developers can use Postman to create HTTP requests for REST APIs. They can specify the request method, API endpoint, headers, and data. 
  • Sending Requests: Once the request is created, developers can send it to the API server. Postman provides tools for sending requests, such as the “Send” button, keyboard shortcuts, and history tracking. 
  • Testing Responses: Postman receives responses from the API server and displays them in the tool’s interface. Developers can test the response status, headers, and body. 
  • Debugging: Postman provides tools for debugging REST APIs, such as console logs and response time tracking. Developers can easily identify and fix issues with their APIs. 
  • Automation: Postman allows developers to automate testing, documentation, and other tasks related to REST APIs. Developers can write test scripts using JavaScript and run them using Postman’s test runner. 
  • Collaboration: Postman allows developers to share API collections with team members, collaborate on API development, and manage API documentation. Developers can also use Postman’s version control system to manage changes to their APIs.

Wrapping up

In summary, Postman is a powerful tool for working with REST APIs. It provides a user-friendly interface for creating, testing, and documenting REST APIs, as well as tools for debugging and automation. Developers can use Postman to collaborate with team members and manage API collections or developers working with APIs. 

Author image - Ayesha
Ayesha Saleem
| May 9

If you’re interested in investing in the stock market, you know how important it is to have access to accurate and up-to-date market data. This data can help you make informed decisions about which stocks to buy or sell, when to do so, and at what price. However, retrieving and analyzing this data can be a complex and time-consuming process. That’s where Python comes in.

Python is a powerful programming language that offers a wide range of tools and libraries for retrieving, analyzing, and visualizing stock market data. In this blog, we’ll explore how to use Python to retrieve fundamental stock market data, such as earnings reports, financial statements, and other key metrics. We’ll also demonstrate how you can use this data to inform your investment strategies and make more informed decisions in the market.

So, whether you’re a seasoned investor or just starting out, read on to learn how Python can help you gain a competitive edge in the stock market.

Using Python to retrieve fundamental stock market data
Using Python to retrieve fundamental stock market data – Source: Freepik  

How to retrieve fundamental stock market data using Python?

Python can be used to retrieve a company’s financial statements and earnings reports by accessing fundamental data of the stock.  Here are some methods to achieve this: 

1. Using the yfinance library:

One can easily get, read, and interpret financial data using Python by using the yfinance library along with the Pandas library. With this, a user can extract various financial data, including the company’s balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement. Additionally, yfinance can be used to collect historical stock data for a specific time period. 

2. Using Alpha Vantage:

Alpha Vantage offers a free API for enterprise-grade financial market data, including company financial statements and earnings reports. A user can extract financial data using Python by accessing the Alpha Vantage API. 

3. Using the get_quote_table method:

The get_quote_table method can be used to extract the data found on the summary page of a stock. This method extracts financial data from the summary page of stock and returns it in the form of a dictionary. From this dictionary, a user can extract the P/E ratio of a company, which is an important financial metric. Additionally, the get_stats_valuation method can be used to extract the P/E ratio of a company.

Python libraries for stock data retrieval: Fundamental and price data

Python has numerous libraries that enable us to access fundamental and price data for stocks. To retrieve fundamental data such as a company’s financial statements and earnings reports, we can use APIs or web scraping techniques.  

On the other hand, to get price data, we can utilize APIs or packages that provide direct access to financial databases. Here are some resources that can help you get started with retrieving both types of data using Python for data science: 

Retrieving fundamental data using API calls in Python is a straightforward process. An API or Application Programming Interface is a server that allows users to retrieve and send data to it using code.  

When requesting data from an API, we need to make a request, which is most commonly done using the GET method. The two most common HTTP request methods for API calls are GET and POST. 

After establishing a healthy connection with the API, the next step is to pull the data from the API. This can be done using the requests.get() method to pull the data from the mentioned API. Once we have the data, we can parse it into a JSON format. 

Top Python libraries like pandas and alpha_vantage can be used to retrieve fundamental data. For example, with alpha_vantage, the fundamental data of almost any stock can be easily retrieved using the Financial Data API. The formatting process can be coded and applied to the dataset to be used in future data science projects. 

Obtaining essential stock market information through APIs

There are various financial data APIs available that can be used to retrieve fundamental data of a stock. Some popular APIs are eodhistoricaldata.com, Nasdaq Data Link APIs, and Morningstar. 

  • Eodhistoricaldata.com, also known as EOD HD, is a website that provides more than just fundamental data and is free to sign up for. It can be used to retrieve fundamental data of a stock.  
  • Nasdaq Data Link APIs can be used to retrieve historical time-series of a stock’s price in CSV format. It offers a simple call to retrieve the data. 
  • Morningstar can also be used to retrieve fundamental data of a stock. One can search for a stock on the website and click on the first result to access the stock’s page and retrieve its data. 
  • Another source for fundamental financial company data is a free source created by a friend. All of the data is easily available from the website, and they offer API access to global stock data (quotes and fundamentals). The documentation for the API access can be found on their website. 

Once you have established a connection to an API, you can pull the fundamental data of a stock using requests. The fundamental data can then be parsed into JSON format using Python libraries such as pandas and alpha_vantage. 


In summary, retrieving fundamental data using API calls in Python is a simple process that involves establishing a healthy connection with the API, pulling the data from the API using requests.get(), and parsing it into a JSON format. Python libraries like pandas and alpha_vantage can be used to retrieve fundamental data. 


Syed Muhammad Hani - Author
Syed Muhammad Hani
| May 3

Most Data Science enthusiasts know how to write queries and fetch data from SQL but find they may find the concept of indexing to be intimidating.

This blog will aim to clear concepts of how this additional tool can help you efficiently access data, especially when there are clear patterns involved. Having a good understanding of indexing techniques will help you with making better design decisions and performance optimizations for your system.  

Understanding indexing

To understand the concept, take the example of a textbook. Your teacher has just assigned you to open “Chapter 15: Atoms and Ions”. In this case, you will have three possible ways to access this chapter: 

  • You may turn over each page, until you find the starting page of “Chapter 15”.  
  • You may open the “Table of Contents”, simply go to the entry of “Chapter 15”, where you will find the page number, where “Chapter 15” starts.  
  • You may also open the “Index” if words, at the end of the textbooks, where all keywords and their page numbers are mentioned. From there you can find out all the pages where the word “Atoms” is present, accessing each of those pages, you will find the page where “Chapter 15” starts.

In the given example try to figure out which of the paths would be most efficient… You may have already guessed it, the second path, using the “Table of Contents”. You figured this out since you understood the problem and the underlying structure of these access paths. Indexes built on large datasets are very similar to this. Let us move on to a bit more practical example. 

It is probable you may have already looked at data with an index built on it, but simply overlooked that detail. Using the “Top Spotify songs from 2010-2019” dataset on Kaggle (https://www.kaggle.com/datasets/leonardopena/top-spotify-songs-from-20102019-by-year),  we read it into a Python – Pandas Data Frame.

Notice the left most column, where there is no column name present. This is a default index created by python for this dataset, while considering the first column present in the csv file as an “unnamed” column. 

Similarly, we can set index columns according to our requirements. For example, if we wanted to set “nrgy” column as an index, we can do it like this: 

Figure 1- Set Index as "nrgy" column
Figure 1- Set Index as “nrgy” column

It is also possible to create an index on multiple columns. If we wanted an index on a columns “artist” and “year”, we could do it by passing the string names as a list parameter to our original set index method. 


Figure 2- Set Index as "artist" and "year" column 
Figure 2- Set Index as “artist” and “year” column 

Up till now, you may have noticed a few points, which
I will point out: 

  • An index is an additional access path, which could be used to efficiently retrieve data. 
  • An index may or may not be built on a column with unique values. 
  • An index may be built on one more column. 
  • An index may be built on either ordered or unordered items. 

Categories of indexing

Let us investigate the categories of indexes. 

  1. Primary Indexes: have ordered files and built on unique columns. 
  1. Clustered Indexes: have ordered files and built on non-unique columns. 
  1. Secondary Indexes: have unordered files and are built on either unique or non-unique columns. 

You may only build a single Primary or Clustered index on a table. Meaning that the files will be ordered based on a single index only. You may build multiple Secondary indices on a table since they do not require the files to change their order. 

Advantages of indexing

Since the main purpose of creating and using an index access path is to give us an efficient way to access the data of our choice, we will be looking at it as our main advantage as well.  

  1. An index allows us to quickly locate, and access data based on the indexed columns, without having to scan through the entire file. This can significantly speed up query performance, especially for large files, by reducing the amount of data that needs to be searched and processed.  
  2. With an index, we can jump directly to the relevant portion of the data, reducing the amount of data that needs to be processed and improving access speed.  
  3. Indexes can also help reduce the amount of disk I/O (input/output) needed for data access. By providing a more focused and smaller subset of data to be read from disk, indexes can help minimize the amount of data that needs to be read, resulting in reduced disk I/O and improved overall performance. 

Costs of indexing

  1. Index Access will not always improve performance. It will depend on the design decisions. It is possible a column frequently accessed in 2023, is the least frequently accessed column in 2026. The previously built index might simply become useless for us. 
  2. For example, a local library keeps a record of their books according to the shelf they are assigned to and stored on. In 2018, the old librarian asked an expert to create an index based on Book ID, assigned to each book at the time when it is stored in the library. The access time per book decreased drastically for that year. A new librarian, hired in 2022, decided to reorder books by their year number and subject. It became slower to access a book through the previously built index as compared to the combination of book year and subject, simply because the order of the books was changed. 
  3. In addition, there will be an added storage cost to the files you have already stored. While the size of an index will be mostly smaller than the size of our base tables, the space a dense index can occupy for large tables may still be a factor to consider.
  4. Lastly, there will be a maintenance cost attached to an index you have built. You will need to update the index entries whenever insert, update, and delete operations are performed for base table. If a table has a high rate of DML operations, the index maintenance cost will also be extremely high. 


While making decisions regarding index creation, you need to consider three things:

1. Index Column Selection: the column on which you will build the index. It is recommended to select the column frequently accessed. 

2. Index Table Selection: the table that requires an index to be built upon. It is recommended to use a table with the least number of DML operations. 

3. Index Type Selection: the type of index which will give the greatest performance benefit. You may want to look into the types of indices which exist for this decision, few examples include: Bitmap Index, B Tree Index, Hash Index, Partial Index, and Composite Index . 

All these factors can be answered by analyzing your access patterns. To put it simply, just look for the table that is most frequently accessed, and which columns are most frequently accessed. 

In a nutshell

In conclusion, while indexing can give you a huge performance benefit, in terms of data access, an expert needs to understand the structure and problem before making the appropriate decision whether an index is needed or not, and if needed, then for which table, column(/s), and the index type. 

Author image - Ayesha
Ayesha Saleem
| May 1

Python is a powerful and versatile programming language that has become increasingly popular in the field of data science. One of the main reasons for its popularity is the vast array of libraries and packages available for data manipulation, analysis, and visualization.

10 Python packages for data science and machine learning

In this article, we will highlight some of the top Python packages for data science that aspiring and practicing data scientists should consider adding to their toolbox. 

1. NumPy 

NumPy is a fundamental package for scientific computing in Python. It supports large, multi-dimensional arrays and matrices of numerical data, as well as a large library of mathematical functions to operate on these arrays. The package is particularly useful for performing mathematical operations on large datasets and is widely used in machine learning, data analysis, and scientific computing. 

2. Pandas 

Pandas is a powerful data manipulation library for Python that provides fast, flexible, and expressive data structures designed to make working with “relational” or “labeled” data easy and intuitive. The package is particularly well-suited for working with tabular data, such as spreadsheets or SQL tables, and provides powerful data cleaning, transformation, and wrangling capabilities. 

3. Matplotlib 

Matplotlib is a plotting library for Python that provides an extensive API for creating static, animated, and interactive visualizations. The library is highly customizable, and users can create a wide range of plots, including line plots, scatter plots, bar plots, histograms, and heat maps. Matplotlib is a great tool for data visualization and is widely used in data analysis, scientific computing, and machine learning. 

4. Seaborn 

Seaborn is a library for creating attractive and informative statistical graphics in Python. The library is built on top of Matplotlib and provides a high-level interface for creating complex visualizations, such as heat maps, violin plots, and scatter plots. Seaborn is particularly well-suited for visualizing complex datasets and is often used in data exploration and analysis. 

5. Scikit-learn 

Scikit-learn is a powerful library for machine learning in Python. It provides a wide range of tools for supervised and unsupervised learning, including linear regression, k-means clustering, and support vector machines. The library is built on top of NumPy and Pandas and is designed to be easy to use and highly extensible. Scikit-learn is a go-to tool for data scientists and machine learning practitioners. 

6. TensorFlow 

TensorFlow is an open-source software library for dataflow and differentiable programming across various tasks. It is a symbolic math library, and is also used for machine learning applications such as neural networks. TensorFlow was developed by the Google Brain team and is used in many of Google’s products and services. 

7. SQLAlchemy

SQLAlchemy is a Python package that serves as both a SQL toolkit and an Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) library. It is designed to simplify the process of working with databases by providing a consistent and high-level interface. It offers a set of utilities and abstractions that make it easier to interact with relational databases using SQL queries. It provides a flexible and expressive syntax for constructing SQL statements, allowing you to perform various database operations such as querying, inserting, updating, and deleting data.

8. OpenCV

OpenCV (CV2) is a library of programming functions mainly aimed at real-time computer vision. Originally developed by Intel, it was later supported by Willow Garage and is now maintained by Itseez. OpenCV is available for C++, Python, and Java. 

9. urllib 

urllib is a module in the Python standard library that provides a set of simple, high-level functions for working with URLs and web protocols. It includes functions for opening and closing network connections, sending and receiving data, and parsing URLs. 

10. BeautifulSoup 

BeautifulSoup is a Python library for parsing HTML and XML documents. It creates parse trees from the documents that can be used to extract data from HTML and XML files with a simple and intuitive API. BeautifulSoup is commonly used for web scraping and data extraction. 

Wrapping up 

In conclusion, these Python packages are some of the most popular and widely-used libraries in the Python data science ecosystem. They provide powerful and flexible tools for data manipulation, analysis, and visualization, and are essential for aspiring and practicing data scientists. With the help of these Python packages, data scientists can easily perform complex data analysis and machine learning tasks, and create beautiful and informative visualizations. 

If you want to learn more about data science and how to use these Python packages, we recommend checking out Data Science Dojo’s Python for Data Science course, which provides a comprehensive introduction to Python and its data science ecosystem. 


Author image - Ayesha
Ayesha Saleem
| April 24

SQL (Structured Query Language) is an important tool for data scientists. It is a programming language used to manipulate data stored in relational databases. Mastering SQL concepts allows a data scientist to quickly analyze large amounts of data and make decisions based on their findings. Here are some essential SQL concepts that every data scientist should know:

First, understanding the syntax of SQL statements is essential in order to retrieve, modify or delete information from databases. For example, statements like SELECT and WHERE can be used to identify specific columns and rows within the database that need attention. A good knowledge of these commands can help a data scientist perform complex operations with ease.

Second, developing an understanding of database relationships such as one-to-one or many-to-many is also important for a data scientist working with SQL.

Here’s an interesting read about Top 10 SQL commands

Let’s dive into some of the key SQL concepts that are important to learn for a data scientist.  

1. Formatting Strings

We are all aware that cleaning up the raw data is necessary to improve productivity overall and produce high-quality decisions. In this case, string formatting is crucial and entails editing the strings to remove superfluous information. For transforming and manipulating strings, SQL provides a large variety of string methods. When combining two or more strings, CONCAT is utilized. The user-defined values that are frequently required in data science can be substituted for the null values using COALESCE. Tiffany Payne  

2. Stored Methods

We can save several SQL statements in our database for later use thanks to stored procedures. When invoked, it allows for reusability and has the ability to accept argument values. It improves performance and makes modifications simpler to implement. For instance, we’re attempting to identify all A-graded students with majors in data science. Keep in mind that CREATE PROCEDURE must be invoked using EXEC in order to be executed, exactly like the function definition. Paul Somerville 

3. Joins

Based on the logical relationship between the tables, SQL joins are used to merge the rows from various tables. In an inner join, only the rows from both tables that satisfy the specified criteria are displayed. In terms of vocabulary, it can be described as an intersection. The list of pupils who have signed up for sports is returned. Sports ID and Student registration ID are identical, please take note. Left Join returns every record from the LEFT table, while Right Join only shows the matching entries from the RIGHT table. Hamza Usmani 

4. Subqueries

Knowing how to utilize subqueries is crucial for data scientists because they frequently work with several tables and can use the results of one query to further limit the data in the primary query. The nested or inner query is another name for it. The subquery is conducted before the main query and needs to be surrounded in parenthesis. It is referred to as a multi-line subquery and requires the use of multi-line operators if it returns more than one row. Tiffany Payne 

5. Left Joins vs Inner Joins

It’s easy to confuse left joins and inner joins, especially for those who are still getting their feet wet with SQL or haven’t touched the language in a while. Make sure that you have a complete understanding of how the various joins produce unique outputs. You will likely be asked to do some kind of join in a significant number of interview questions, and in certain instances, the difference between a correct response and an incorrect one will depend on which option you pick. Tom Miller 

6. Manipulation of dates and times

There will most likely be some kind of SQL query using date-time data, and you should prepare for it. For instance, one of your tasks can be to organize the data into groups according to the months or to change the format of a variable from DD-MM-YYYY to only the month. You should be familiar with the following functions:


Olivia Tonks 

7. Procedural Data Storage 

Using stored procedures, we can compile a series of SQL commands into a single object in the database and call it whenever we need it. It allows for reusability and when invoked, can take in values for its parameters. It improves efficiency and makes it simple to implement new features. Using this method, we can identify the students with the highest GPAs who have declared a particular major. One goal is to identify all A-students whose major is Data Science. It’s important to remember that, like a function declaration, calling a CREATE PROCEDURE with EXEC is necessary for the procedure to be executed. Nely Mihaylova 

8. Connecting SQL to Python or R 

A developer who is fluent in a statistical language, like Python or R, may quickly and easily use the packages of
language to construct machine learning models on a massive dataset stored in a relational database management system. A programmer’s employment prospects will improve dramatically if they are fluent in both these statistical languages and SQL. Data analysis, dataset preparation, interactive visualizations, and more may all be accomplished in SQL Server with the help of Python or R. Rene Delgado  

9. Features of windows

In order to apply aggregate and ranking functions over a specific window, window functions are used (set of rows). When defining a window with a function, the OVER clause is utilized. The OVER clause serves dual purposes:

– Separates rows into groups (PARTITION BY clause is used).
– Sorts the rows inside those partitions into a specified order (ORDER BY clause is used).
– Aggregate window functions refer to the application of aggregate
functions like SUM(), COUNT(), AVERAGE(), MAX(), and MIN() over a specific window (set of rows). Tom Hamilton Stubber  

10. The emergence of Quantum ML

With the use of quantum computing, more advanced artificial intelligence and machine learning models might be created. Despite the fact that true quantum computing is still a long way off, things are starting to shift as a result of the cloud-based quantum computing tools and simulations provided by Microsoft, Amazon, and IBM. Combining ML and quantum computing has the potential to greatly benefit enterprises by enabling them to take on problems that are currently insurmountable. Steve Pogson 

11. Predicates

Predicates occur from your WHERE, HAVING, and JOIN clauses. They limit the amount of data that has to be processed to run your query. If you say SELECT DISTINCT customer_name FROM customers WHERE signup_date = TODAY() that’s probably a much smaller query than if you run it without the WHERE clause because, without it, we’re selecting every customer that ever signed up!

Data science sometimes involves some big datasets. Without good predicates, your queries will take forever and cost a ton on the infra bill! Different data warehouses are designed differently, and data architects and engineers make different decisions about to lay out the data for the best performance. Knowing the basics of your data warehouse, and how the tables you’re using are laid out, will help you write good predicates that save your company a lot of money during the year, and just as importantly, make your queries run much faster.

For example, a query that runs quickly but simply touches a huge amount of data in Bigquery can be really expensive if you’re using on-demand pricing which scales with the amount of data touched by the query. The same query can be really cheap if you’re using Bigquery’s Flat-rate pricing or Snowflake, both of which are affected by how long your query takes to run, not how much data is fed into it. Kyle Kirwan 

12. Query Syntax

This is what makes SQL so powerful and much easier than coding individual statements for every task we want to complete when extracting data from a database. Every query starts with one or more clauses such as SELECT, FROM, or WHERE – each clause gives us different capabilities; SELECT allows us to define which columns we’d like returned in the results set; FROM indicates which table name(s) we should get our data from; WHERE allows us to specify conditions that rows must meet for them to be included in our result set etcetera! Understanding how all these clauses work together will help you write more effective and efficient queries quickly, allowing you to do better analysis faster! John Smith 

Elevate your business with essential SQL concepts 

AI and machine learning, which have been rapidly emerging, are quickly becoming one of the top trends in technology. Developments in AI and machine learning are being seen all over the world, from big businesses to small startups.

Businesses utilizing these two technologies are able to create smarter systems for their customers and employees, allowing them to make better decisions faster.

These advancements in artificial intelligence and machine learning are helping companies reach new heights with their products or services by providing them with more data to help inform decision-making processes.

Additionally, AI and machine learning can be used to automate mundane tasks that take up valuable time. This could mean more efficient customer service or even automated marketing campaigns that drive sales growth through
real-time analysis of consumer behavior. Rajesh Namase

Ruhma Khawaja author
Ruhma Khawaja
| April 13

APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) have become an indispensable aspect of modern software development. They enable developers to communicate with other software systems, resulting in the development of new applications quickly and effectively. In this blog post, we will provide an introduction and overview of their functionality.

What are APIs?

Application Programming Interface is a set of protocols, routines, and tools used for building software applications. It specifies how software components should interact with each other, allowing for seamless communication between different systems.

Types of APIs

  1. Web APIs: These allow communication over the internet. They can be accessed using HTTP requests and typically return data in a structured format such as JSON or XML.
  2. Local APIs: These are installed locally on a computer or device and can be accessed using programming languages such as Java or Python.
  3. Program APIs: These allow communication between different software programs or components, such as database APIs, operating system APIs, and messaging APIs.
Introduction to APIs
Introduction to APIs

How do they work?

APIs typically use a client-server model, where the client (such as a mobile app or web browser) sends a request to the server (which could be a web server or a local server), and the server sends back a response.

The request and response are typically formatted using HTTP, which stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. The request includes information about the type of request (such as GET or POST), any parameters or data needed for the request, and the URL of the endpoint.

The response includes data in a structured format such as JSON or XML, as well as information about the status of the request (such as whether it was successful or not).

Common formats include JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) and XML (eXtensible Markup Language), which are both lightweight and widely used for transferring data over the internet.

Use Cases for APIs

APIs have various use cases that make them essential for modern software development. One such use case is integrating different systems or applications, allowing for seamless communication and data transfer between them. They can also automate repetitive tasks, saving time and resources for developers.

Another use case is enabling third-party developers to access data or functionality, providing them with the necessary tools to build their own applications. This is often seen in the context of open APIs, which are accessible to anyone.

They are also commonly used in building mobile or web applications. They provide a way for these applications to communicate with servers and access data in real time.

Lastly, APIs are used for providing real-time updates and notifications to users. For example, a weather API can provide real-time updates on the current weather conditions in a specific location.


Challenges associated with utilizing application programming interfaces

APIs have become an essential tool for businesses to connect and exchange data between various applications and services. However, with this convenience, come certain challenges that businesses need to be aware of:

  1. Security Concerns: They can provide unauthorized access to confidential data, which can be exploited by hackers. Therefore, security measures need to be in place to ensure that only authorized users can access it.
  2. Integration Issues: They can be complex to integrate into existing systems, particularly if the provider does not offer adequate support or documentation.
  3. Limited Control over Third-Party APIs: When using third-party APIs, businesses have limited control over the functionality and performance, which can cause issues if the provider decides to change their service or discontinue it.

Popular APIs

APIs are widely used across industries and here are some examples of popular APIs:

  1. Google Maps API: It is a widely used API for businesses in the transportation and logistics industry. It provides accurate location data, directions, and other location-based information to businesses.
  2. Twitter API: It allows businesses to integrate Twitter data into their applications and services. It provides access to real-time tweets, hashtags, and user data, which can be used for sentiment analysis and social media monitoring.
  3. Facebook API: It allows businesses to integrate Facebook data into their applications and services. It provides access to user data, pages, and insights, which can be used for social media marketing and analysis.

Explanation of documentation

API documentation is a comprehensive guide that provides developers with instructions and guidelines on how to use an API. It’s an essential part of the development and ensures that developers can effectively integrate the API into their applications.

This documentation typically includes details about the functionality, parameters, and endpoints. It may also include sample code, response examples, and error-handling guidelines. It can be written in different formats, such as HTML, PDF, and Markdown. The format used depends on the programming language and development platform.

Effective API documentation is crucial for developers to understand how to use it correctly. It should be clear, concise, and easy to navigate. The documentation should also include detailed examples and use cases to help developers better understand the functionality. Good documentation can also serve as a marketing tool, helping to attract potential users and customers. It can demonstrate the value proposition and show how it can solve specific problems.

All in all, the documentation should be updated regularly to reflect any changes or updates. This ensures that developers have access to the most up-to-date information and can use it effectively.

Wrapping up

APIs have become an essential tool for businesses to integrate various applications and services. However, they also come with their own set of challenges, including security concerns, integration issues, and limited control over third-party. To overcome these challenges, businesses must carefully select APIs and use documentation to ensure that they are integrated correctly.

Ruhma Khawaja author
Ruhma Khawaja
| April 6

As data-driven decision-making gains popularity, more tech graduates are learning data science to enter the job market. While Python and R are popular for analysis and machine learning, SQL and database management are often overlooked.

However, data is typically stored in databases and requires SQL or business intelligence tools for access. In this guide, we provide a comprehensive overview of various types of databases and their differences.

Through this guide, we give you a larger picture to get started with your database journey. So, if you are a beginner with no prior experience, this guide is a must-read for you 

What is a database? 

Databases are used to store and organize large amounts of data in a structured way. They are designed to manage and handle large volumes of information efficiently and effectively, making it easy to retrieve, update, and delete data as needed.

In simple terms, it is a collection of data that is organized in a specific way, making it easy to search, sort, and analyze. It is like a digital filing cabinet, where information is stored and accessed by different users, applications, or systems.

There are various types of databases, such as relational, NoSQL, and object-oriented, each with its own unique characteristics and applications. However, the core purpose of any database is to provide a centralized and secure location for storing and managing data, ensuring data consistency and accuracy, and making it accessible to authorized users or applications.

Understanding databases
Understanding databases

Types of databases

There are several types of databases that are used for different purposes. The main types of databases include:

1. Relational databases:

A relational database is the most common type of database used today. It stores data in tables that are related to each other through keys. Each table in a relational database has a unique primary key, which is used to link it to other tables. They use Structured Query Language (SQL) for managing and querying data. Some popular examples of relational databases are Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, MySQL, and PostgreSQL.

2. NoSQL databases

NoSQL databases are used for unstructured and semi-structured data. They do not use tables, rows, and columns like relational databases. Instead, they store data in a flexible format, such as key-value pairs, document-based, or graph-based. NoSQL are commonly used in big data and real-time applications. Some popular examples of NoSQL databases are MongoDB, Cassandra, and Couchbase.

3. Object-oriented databases

Object-oriented databases store data in objects, which are similar to the objects used in object-oriented programming languages like Java and C#. They allow for complex data relationships and provide a more natural way of storing data for object-oriented applications. They are commonly used in computer-aided design, web development, and artificial intelligence. Some popular examples of object-oriented databases are ObjectDB and db4o.

4. Hierarchical databases

Hierarchical databases organize data in a tree-like structure, with each record having one parent record and many child records. They are suitable for storing data with a fixed and predictable structure. These were popular in the past, but they have been largely replaced by other types of databases. IBM Information Management System (IMS) is a popular example of a hierarchical database.

5. Network databases

Network databases are similar to hierarchical databases, but they allow for more complex relationships between records. In a network database, each record can have multiple parent and child records. They are suitable for storing data with a complex structure that cannot be easily represented in a hierarchical database. They are not widely used today, but some examples include Integrated Data Stores (IDS) and CA-IDMS.

What is RDBMS?

RDBMS stands for Relational Database Management System. It is defined as a type of database management system that is based on the relational model. In an RDBMS, data is organized into tables and relationships between tables, allowing for easy retrieval and manipulation of the information. The most popular RDBMSs include MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL, SQL Server, and SQLite. 

  1. MySQLMySQL is an open-source RDBMS that is widely used for web-based applications. It is known for its high performance, reliability, and ease of use. MySQL is compatible with a wide range of operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and macOS.
  2. OracleOracle is a commercial RDBMS that is widely used in enterprise environments. It is known for its high performance, scalability, and security. Oracle is compatible with a wide range of operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and Solaris. 
  3. PostgreSQLPostgreSQL is an open-source RDBMS known for its advanced features, such as support for complex data types, concurrency control, and full-text search. It is widely used in data warehousing, business intelligence, and scientific applications.
  4. SQL ServerSQL Server is a commercial RDBMS developed and maintained by Microsoft. It is known for its high performance, scalability, and security. SQL Server is compatible with Windows operating system only. 
  5. SQLiteSQLite is a small, lightweight RDBMS that is embedded into the application. It is known for its high performance, reliability, and ease of use. SQLite is compatible with a wide range of operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and macOS.

Database design

Designing a database is a critical step in creating a functional and efficient database system. It involves creating a structure that will organize the data and enable efficient storage, retrieval, and manipulation. The following are the key components of design:

Designing a database

Designing a database involves identifying the data that needs to be stored and organizing it into tables that are related to each other. The tables should be designed in a way that minimizes redundancy and ensures data consistency.

Entity-relationship diagrams (ERD)

An entity-relationship diagram (ERD) is a visual representation of the its structure. It shows the tables, their relationships, and the attributes that are stored in each table. ERDs are essential as they provide a clear and concise view of the database structure.


Normalization is the process of organizing data in a database to minimize redundancy and ensure data consistency. It involves breaking down large tables into smaller, more manageable tables that are related to each other. Normalization helps to eliminate data redundancy and ensures that each table contains only the data that is relevant to it.

There are several levels of normalization, with each level building upon the previous level. The most common levels of normalization are:

  1. First Normal Form (1NF)
  2. Second Normal Form (2NF)
  3. Third Normal Form (3NF)
  4. Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF)

Normalization is an important aspect of design as it helps to minimize data redundancy, ensure data consistency, and improve its performance.

What is SQL?

SQL is used to manage and manipulate databases. Whether you are a beginner or a seasoned developer, understanding the basics of this programming language is essential for anyone working with data.  

Types of SQL commands 

First, let us talk about the several types of SQL commands. SQL commands are grouped into four main categories:  

1. Data definition language (DDL) – DDL commands are used to create and modify a database’s structure, such as creating tables, altering table structures, and deleting tables. Some examples of DDL commands include CREATE, ALTER, and DROP. 

2. Data manipulation language (DML) – DML commands are used to manipulate the data within a database. These commands include SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE.  

3. Data control language (DCL) – DCL commands are used to manage access such as granting and revoking permissions. Examples of DCL commands include GRANT and REVOKE. 

4. Data query language (DQL) – Primarily, DQL commands are used to query the data. Most used commands include SELECT which are used to retrieve data from a table. 

Difference between SQL and NoSQL 

One of the main differences between SQL and NoSQL databases is how they store and retrieve data. SQL databases use tables and rows to store the data, while NoSQL databases use documents, collections, or key-value pairs. SQL databases are better suited for structured data, while NoSQL databases are better suited for unstructured data. 

Another difference between SQL and NoSQL databases is the way they handle scalability. As these databases are vertically scalable, SQL databases can handle more load by adding more resources to the same server. NoSQL databases are horizontally scalable and can handle the additional load by adding more servers. 

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In conclusion, this guide provides a comprehensive overview of various types and their differences, including relational, non-relational, object-oriented, hierarchical, and network databases. Designing a database is a critical step in creating a functional and efficient database system. By understanding the types and their unique features, you can choose the right database for your specific use case and design one that meets your data management needs.

Data Science Dojo
Dagmawit Tenaye
| April 5

Frameworks, libraries, and packages are all important components of the software development process, and each type of component offers unique benefits and challenges. As essential tools in the world of programming, they help developers write code more efficiently and save time by providing pre-written code that can be reused for different projects.

Even though these components are often used interchangeably, they are, in fact, quite different from one another. Being aware of the difference is important for efficient software development.  

Frameworks, Libraries, and Packages
Frameworks, Libraries, and Packages

Understanding frameworks, libraries, and packages

What are frameworks?

Frameworks are a set of classes, interfaces, and tools used to create software applications. They usually contain code that handles low-level programming and offers an easy-to-use framework for developers. Frameworks promote consistency by providing a structure in which to develop applications. This structure can also be used as a guide for customizing the activity of coding and adding features. 

Examples of frameworks include .NET, React, Angular, and Ruby on Rails. The advantages of using frameworks include faster development times, easier maintenance, and a consistent structure across projects. However, frameworks can also be restrictive and may not be suitable for all projects.

What are libraries?

Libraries are collections of code that are pre-written and can be reused in different programming contexts. These libraries provide developers with efficient, reusable code, making it simpler and faster to create applications. Libraries are especially helpful for tasks that require complicated math, complicated graphics, and other computationally-intensive tasks. 

Popular examples of libraries are jQuery, Apache ObjectReuse, .NET libraries, etc. The advantages of using libraries include faster development times, increased productivity, and the ability to solve common problems quickly. However, libraries can also be limiting and may not provide the flexibility needed for more complex projects.

What are  packages?

Finally, packages are a collection of modules and associated files that form a unit or a group. These packages are useful for distributing and installing large applications and libraries. A package bundles the necessary files and components to execute a function, making it easier to install and manage them. 

Popular examples of packages are Java EE, JavaServer Faces, Requests, Matplotlib, and Pygame. Pygame is a Python package used for building games. Java EE is a set of APIs for developing enterprise applications in Java. JavaServer Faces (JSF) is a UI framework for web apps in Java, and JavaFX is a package for building rich client apps in Java.

The advantages of using packages include increased functionality, faster development times, and the ability to solve specific problems quickly. However, packages can also be limiting and may not provide the flexibility needed for more complex projects.

Choosing the right tool for the job

The main difference between frameworks, libraries, and packages is the level of abstraction they provide. 

To put it simply… 

Frameworks offer the highest level of abstraction because they establish the basic rules and structure that should be followed when creating an application. 

Libraries, on the other hand, offer the least amount of abstraction, as they are collections of code that can be reused for various tasks. 

Packages provide an intermediate level of abstraction, as they are collections of modular components that can be installed for various tasks. Let’s take an example… 

Understanding frameworks, libraries, and packages
Understanding frameworks, libraries, and packages

If you’re interested in exploring Node.js libraries, you can find a comprehensive list of options here. 

Maximizing software development efficiency with the right tools

In conclusion, understanding the differences between frameworks, libraries, and packages is important for efficient software development. While frameworks provide structure and high-level rules, libraries offer pre-written code for various tasks, and packages help distribute and install large applications. Being aware of these differences is key to utilizing the best of each component for successful software development. 

Author image - Ayesha
Ayesha Saleem
| April 4

Are you interested in learning Python for Data Science? Look no further than Data Science Dojo’s Introduction to Python for Data Science course. This instructor-led live training course is designed for individuals who want to learn how to use Python to perform data analysis, visualization, and manipulation. 

Python is a powerful programming language used in data science, machine learning, and artificial intelligence. It is a versatile language that is easy to learn and has a wide range of applications. In this course, you will learn the basics of Python programming and how to use it for data analysis and visualization. 

Learn the basics of Python programming and how to use it for data analysis and visualization in Data Science Dojo’s Introduction to Python for Data Science course. This instructor-led live training course is designed for individuals who want to learn how to use Python to perform data analysis, visualization, and manipulation. 

Why learn Python for data science? 

Python is a popular language for data science because it is easy to learn and use. It has a large community of developers who contribute to open-source libraries that make data analysis and visualization more accessible. Python is also an interpreted language, which means that you can write and run code without the need for a compiler. 

Python has a wide range of applications in data science, including: 

  • Data analysis: Python is used to analyze data from various sources such as databases, CSV files, and APIs. 
  • Data visualization: Python has several libraries that can be used to create interactive and informative visualizations of data. 
  • Machine learning: Python has several libraries for machine learning, such as scikit-learn and TensorFlow. 
  • Web scraping: Python is used to extract data from websites and APIs.
Python for data science
Python for Data Science – Data Science Dojo

Python for Data Science Course Outline 

Data Science Dojo’s Introduction to Python for Data Science course covers the following topics: 

  • Introduction to Python: Learn the basics of Python programming, including data types, control structures, and functions. 
  • NumPy: Learn how to use the NumPy library for numerical computing in Python. 
  • Pandas: Learn how to use the Pandas library for data manipulation and analysis. 
  • Data visualization: Learn how to use the Matplotlib and Seaborn libraries for data visualization. 
  • Machine learning: Learn the basics of machine learning in Python using sci-kit-learn. 
  • Web scraping: Learn how to extract data from websites using Python. 
  • Project: Apply your knowledge to a real-world Python project. 

Python is an important programming language in the data science field and learning it can have significant benefits for data scientists. Here are some key points and reasons to learn Python for data science, specifically from Data Science Dojo’s instructor-led live training program:

  • Python is easy to learn: Compared to other programming languages, Python has a simpler and more intuitive syntax, making it easier to learn and use for beginners. 
  • Python is widely used: Python has become the preferred language for data science and is used extensively in the industry by companies such as Google, Facebook, and Amazon. 
  • Large community: The Python community is large and active, making it easy to get help and support. 
  • A comprehensive set of libraries: Python has a comprehensive set of libraries specifically designed for data science, such as NumPy, Pandas, Matplotlib, and Scikit-learn, making data analysis easier and more efficient. 
  • Versatile: Python is a versatile language that can be used for a wide range of tasks, from data cleaning and analysis to machine learning and deep learning. 
  • Job opportunities: As more and more companies adopt Python for data science, there is a growing demand for professionals with Python skills, leading to more job opportunities in the field. 

Data Science Dojo’s instructor-led live training program provides a structured and hands-on learning experience to master Python for data science. The program covers the fundamentals of
Python programming, data cleaning and analysis, machine learning, and deep learning, equipping learners with the necessary skills to solve real-world data science problems.  

By enrolling in the program, learners can benefit from personalized instruction, hands-on practice, and collaboration with peers, making the learning process more effective and efficient 

Some common questions asked about the course 

  • What are the prerequisites for the course? 

The course is designed for individuals with little to no programming experience. However, some familiarity with programming concepts such as variables, functions, and control structures is helpful. 

  • What is the format of the course? 

The course is an instructor-led live training course. You will attend live online classes with a qualified instructor who will guide you through the course material and answer any questions you may have. 

  • How long is the course? 

The course is four days long, with each day consisting of six hours of instruction. 


If you’re interested in learning Python for Data Science, Data Science Dojo’s Introduction to Python for Data Science course is an excellent place to start. This course will provide you with a solid foundation in Python programming and teach you how to use Python for data analysis, visualization, and manipulation.  

With its instructor-led live training format, you’ll have the opportunity to learn from an experienced instructor and interact with other students. Enroll today and start your journey to becoming a data scientist with Python.

register now

Shehryar Author - Data Science
Shehryar Mallick
| March 13

This blog explores the difference between mutable and immutable objects in Python. 

Python is a powerful programming language with a wide range of applications in various industries. Understanding how to use mutable and immutable objects is essential for efficient and effective Python programming. In this guide, we will take a deep dive into mastering mutable and immutable objects in Python.

Mutable objects

In Python, an object is considered mutable if its value can be changed after it has been created. This means that any operation that modifies a mutable object will modify the original object itself. To put it simply, mutable objects are those that can be modified either in terms of state or contents after they have been created. The mutable objects that are present in python are lists, dictionaries and sets. 







Advantages of mutable objects 

  • They can be modified in place, which can be more efficient than recreating an immutable object. 
  • They can be used for more complex and dynamic data structures, like lists and dictionaries. 

Disadvantages of mutable objects 

  • They can be modified by another thread, which can lead to race conditions and other concurrency issues. 
  • They can’t be used as keys in a dictionary or elements in a set. 
  • They can be more difficult to reason about and debug because their state can change unexpectedly.

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While mutable objects are a powerful feature of Python, they can also be tricky to work with, especially when dealing with multiple references to the same object. By following best practices and being mindful of the potential pitfalls of using mutable objects, you can write more efficient and reliable Python code.

Immutable objects 

In Python, an object is considered immutable if its value cannot be changed after it has been created. This means that any operation that modifies an immutable object returns a new object with the modified value. In contrast to mutable objects, immutable objects are those whose state cannot be modified once they are created. Examples of immutable objects in Python include strings, tuples, and numbers.

Immutable Objects Code 1
Immutable Objects Code 1


Immutable Objects Code 2
Immutable Objects Code 2


Immutable Objects Code 3
Immutable Objects Code 3


Advantages of immutable objects 

  • They are safer to use in a multi-threaded environment as they cannot be modified by another thread once created, thus reducing the risk of race conditions. 
  • They can be used as keys in a dictionary because they are hashable and their hash value will not change. 
  • They can be used as elements of a set because they are comparable, and their value will not change. 
  • They are simpler to reason about and debug because their state cannot change unexpectedly. 

Disadvantages of immutable objects

  • They need to be recreated if their value needs to be changed, which can be less efficient than modifying the state of a mutable object. 
  • They take up more memory if they are used in large numbers, as new objects need to be created instead of modifying the state of existing objects. 

How to work with mutable and immutable objects?

To work with mutable and immutable objects in Python, it is important to understand their differences. Immutable objects cannot be modified after they are created, while mutable objects can. Use immutable objects for values that should not be modified, and mutable objects for when you need to modify the object’s state or contents. When working with mutable objects, be aware of side effects that can occur when passing them as function arguments. To avoid side effects, make a copy of the mutable object before modifying it or use immutable objects as function arguments.

Wrapping up

In conclusion, mastering mutable and immutable objects is crucial to becoming an efficient Python programmer. By understanding the differences between mutable and immutable objects and implementing best practices when working with them, you can write better Python code and optimize your memory usage. We hope this guide has provided you with a comprehensive understanding of mutable and immutable objects in Python.


Ruhma - Author
Ruhma Khawaja
| March 10

As the amount of data being generated and stored by companies and organizations continue to grow, the ability to effectively manage and manipulate this data using databases has become increasingly important for developers. Among the plethora of programming languages, we have SQL. Also known as Structured Query Language, SQL is a programming language widely used for managing data stored in relational databases.

SQL commands enable developers to perform a wide range of tasks such as creating tables, inserting, modifying data, retrieving data, searching databases, and much more. In this guide, we will highlight the top basic SQL commands that every developer should be familiar with. 

What is SQL?

For the unversed, the programming language SQL is primarily used to manage and manipulate data in relational databases. Relational databases are a type of database that organizes data into tables with rows and columns, like a spreadsheet. SQL is used to create, modify, and query these tables and the data stored in them. 


With SQL commands, developers can create tables and other database objects, insert and update data, delete data, and retrieve data from the database using SELECT statements. Developers can also use SQL to create, modify and manage indexes, which are used to improve the performance of database queries.

The language is used by many popular relational database management systems such as MySQL, PostgreSQL, and Microsoft SQL Server. While the syntax of SQL commands may vary slightly between different database management systems, the basic concepts are consistent across most implementations. 

Types of SQL Commands 

There are several types of SQL commands that are commonly used in relational databases, each with a specific purpose and function. Some of the most used SQL commands include: 

  1. Data Definition Language (DDL) commands: These commands are used to define the structure of a database, including tables, columns, and constraints. Examples of DDL commands include CREATE, ALTER, and DROP.
  2. Data Manipulation Language (DML) commands: These commands are used to manipulate data within a database. Examples of DML commands include SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE.
  3. Data Control Language (DCL) commands: These commands are used to control access to the database. Examples of DCL commands include GRANT and REVOKE.
  4. Transaction Control Language (TCL) commands: These commands are used to control transactions in the database. Examples of TCL commands include COMMIT and ROLLBACK.

Essential SQL commands

There are several essential SQL commands that you should know in order to work effectively with databases. Here are some of the most important SQL commands to learn:


The CREATE statement is used to create a new table, view, or another database object. The basic syntax of a CREATE TABLE statement is as follows: 

The statement starts with the keyword CREATE, followed by the type of object you want to create (in this case, TABLE), and the name of the new object you’re creating (in place of “table_name”). Then you specify the columns of the table and their data types.

For example, if you wanted to create a table called “customers” with columns for ID, first name, last name, and email address, the CREATE TABLE statement might look like this:

This statement would create a table called “customers” with columns for ID, first name, last name, and email address, with their respective data types specified. The ID column is also set as the primary key for the table.


Used on one of multiple tables, the SELECT statement Is used to retrieve data. The basic syntax of a SELECT statement is as follows: 

The SELECT statement starts with the keyword SELECT, followed by a list of the columns you want to retrieve. You then specify the table or tables from which you want to retrieve the data, using the FROM clause. You can also use the JOIN clause to combine data from two or more tables based on a related column.

You can use the WHERE clause to filter the results of a query based on one or more conditions. Programmers can also use GROUP BY to manage the results by one or multiple columns. The HAVING clause is used to filter the groups based on a condition while the ORDER BY clause can be used to sort the results by one or more columns.  


INSERT is used to add new data to a table in a database. The basic syntax of an INSERT statement is as follows: 

INSERT is used to add data to a specific table and begins with the keywords INSERT INTO, followed by the name of the table where the data will be inserted. You then specify the names of the columns in which you want to insert the data, enclosed in parentheses. You then specify the values you want to insert, enclosed in parentheses, and separated by commas. 


Another common SQL command is the UPDATE statement. It is used to modify existing data in a table in a database. The basic syntax of an UPDATE statement is as follows: 

The UPDATE statement starts with the keyword UPDATE, followed by the name of the table you want to update. You then specify the new values for one or more columns using the SET clause and use the WHERE clause to specify which rows to update. 


Next up, we have another SQL command DELETE which is used to delete data from a table in a database. The basic syntax of a DELETE statement is as follows: 

In the above-mentioned code snippet, the statement begins with the keyword DELETE FROM. Then, we add the table name from which data must be deleted. You then use the WHERE clause to specify which rows to delete. 


The ALTER command in SQL is used to modify an existing table, database, or other database objects. It can be used to add, modify, or delete columns, constraints, or indexes from a table, or to change the name or other properties of a table, database, or another object. Here is an example of using the ALTER command to add a new column to a table called “tablename1”: 

In this example, the ALTER TABLE command is used to modify the “users” table. The ADD keyword is used to indicate that a new column is being added, and the column is called “email” and has a data type of VARCHAR with a maximum length of 50 characters. 


The DROP command in SQL is used to delete a table, database, or other database objects. When a table, database, or other object is dropped, all the data and structure associated with it is permanently removed and cannot be recovered. So, it is important to be careful when using this command. Here is an example of using the DROP command to delete a table called ” tablename1″: 

In this example, the DROP TABLE command is used to delete the ” tablename1″ table from the database. Once the table is dropped, all the data and structure associated with it are permanently removed and cannot be recovered. It is also possible to use the DROP command to delete a database, an index, a view, a trigger, a constraint, and a sequence using a similar syntax as above by replacing the table with the corresponding keyword. 


The SQL TRUNCATE command is used to delete all the data from a table. Simultaneously, this command also resets the auto-incrementing counter. Since it is a DDL operation, it is much faster than DELETE and does not generate undo logs, and does not fire any triggers associated with the table. Here is an example of using the TRUNCATE command to delete all data from a table called “customers”: 

In this example, the TRUNCATE TABLE command is used to delete all data from the “customers” table. Once the command is executed, the table will be empty, and the auto-incrementing counter will be reset. It is important to note that the TRUNCATE statement is not a substitute for the DELETE statement, TRUNCATE can only be used on tables and not on views or other database objects. 


The SQL INDEX command is used to create or drop indexes on one or more columns of a table. An index is a data structure that improves the speed of data retrieval operations on a table at the cost of slower data modification operations. Here is an example of using the CREATE INDEX command to create a new index on a table called ” tablename1″ on the column “first_name”: 

In this example, the CREATE INDEX command is used to create a new index called “idx_first_name” on the column “first_name” of the ” tablename1″ table. This index will improve the performance of queries that filter, or sort data based on the “first_name” column. 


Finally, we have a JOIN command that is primarily used to combine rows from two or more tables based on a related column between them.  It allows you to query data from multiple tables as if they were a single table. It is used for retrieving data that is spread across multiple tables, or for creating more complex reports and analyses.  

INNER JOIN – By implementing INNER JOIN, the database only returns/displays the rows that have matching values in both tables. For example, 

LEFT JOIN – LEFT JOIN command returns all rows from the left table. It also returns possible matching rows from the right table. If there is no match, NULL values will be returned for the right table’s columns. For example, 

RIGHT JOIN – In the RIGHT JOIN, the database returns all rows from the right table and possible matching rows from the left table. In case there is no match, NULL values will be returned for the left table’s columns. 

FULL OUTER JOIN – This type of JOIN returns all rows from both tables and any matching rows from both tables. If there is no match, NULL values will be returned for the non-matching columns. 

CROSS JOIN – This type of JOIN returns the Cartesian product of both tables, meaning it returns all combinations of rows from both tables. This can be useful for creating a matrix of data but can be slow and resource-intensive with large tables. 

Furthermore, it is also possible to use JOINs with subqueries and add ON or USING clauses to specify the columns that one wants to join.

Bottom line 

In conclusion, SQL is a powerful tool for managing and retrieving data in a relational database. The commands covered in this blog, SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE, are some of the most used in SQL commands and provide the foundation for performing a wide range of operations on a database. Understanding these commands is essential for anyone working with SQL commands and relational databases.

With practice and experience, you will become more proficient in using these commands and be able to create more complex queries to meet your specific needs. 



Data Science Dojo
Syed Umair Hasan
| February 22

In this step-by-step guide, learn how to deploy a web app for Gradio on Azure with Docker. This blog covers everything from Azure Container Registry to Azure Web Apps, with a step-by-step tutorial for beginners.

I was searching for ways to deploy a Gradio application on Azure, but there wasn’t much information to be found online. After some digging, I realized that I could use Docker to deploy custom Python web applications, which was perfect since I had neither the time nor the expertise to go through the “code” option on Azure. 

The process of deploying a web app begins by creating a Docker image, which contains all of the application’s code and its dependencies. This allows the application to be packaged and pushed to the Azure Container Registry, where it can be stored until needed. From there, it can be deployed to the Azure App Service, where it is run as a container and can be managed from the Azure Portal. In this portal, users can adjust the settings of their app, as well as grant access to roles and services when needed. 

Once everything is set and the necessary permissions have been granted, the web app should be able to properly run on Azure. Deploying a web app on Azure using Docker is an easy and efficient way to create and deploy applications, and can be a great solution for those who lack the necessary coding skills to create a web app from scratch!’

Comprehensive overview

Gradio application 

Gradio is a Python library that allows users to create interactive demos and share them with others. It provides a high-level abstraction through the Interface class, while the Blocks API is used for designing web applications.

Blocks provides features like multiple data flows and demos, control over where components appear on the page, handling complex data flows, and the ability to update properties and visibility of components based on user interaction. With Gradio, users can create a web application that allows their users to interact with their machine learning model, API, or data science workflow. 

The two primary files in a Gradio Application are:

  1. App.py: This file contains the source code for the application.
  2. Requirements.txt: This file lists the Python libraries required for the source code to function properly.


Docker is an open-source platform for automating the deployment, scaling, and management of applications, as containers. It uses a container-based approach to package software, which enables applications to be isolated from each other, making it easier to deploy, run, and manage them in a variety of environments. 

A Docker container is a lightweight, standalone, and executable software package that includes everything needed to run a specific application, including the code, runtime, system tools, libraries, and settings. Containers are isolated from each other and from the host operating system, making them ideal for deploying microservices and applications that have multiple components or dependencies. 

Docker also provides a centralized way to manage containers and share images, making it easier to collaborate on application development, testing, and deployment. With its growing ecosystem and user-friendly tools, Docker has become a popular choice for developers, system administrators, and organizations of all sizes. 

Azure Container Registry 

Azure Container Registry (ACR) is a fully-managed, private Docker registry service provided by Microsoft as part of its Azure cloud platform. It allows you to store, manage, and deploy Docker containers in a secure and scalable way, making it an important tool for modern application development and deployment. 

With ACR, you can store your own custom images and use them in your applications, as well as manage and control access to them with role-based access control. Additionally, ACR integrates with other Azure services, such as Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) and Azure DevOps, making it easy to deploy containers to production environments and manage the entire application lifecycle. 

ACR also provides features such as image signing and scanning, which helps ensure the security and compliance of your containers. You can also store multiple versions of images, allowing you to roll back to a previous version if necessary. 

Azure Web App 

Azure Web Apps is a fully-managed platform for building, deploying, and scaling web applications and services. It is part of the Azure App Service, which is a collection of integrated services for building, deploying, and scaling modern web and mobile applications. 

With Azure Web Apps, you can host web applications written in a variety of programming languages, such as .NET, Java, PHP, Node.js, and Python. The platform automatically manages the infrastructure, including server resources, security, and availability, so that you can focus on writing code and delivering value to your customers. 

Azure Web Apps supports a variety of deployment options, including direct Git deployment, continuous integration and deployment with Visual Studio Team Services or GitHub, and deployment from Docker containers. It also provides built-in features such as custom domains, SSL certificates, and automatic scaling, making it easy to deliver high-performing, secure, and scalable web applications. 

A step-by-step guide to deploying a Gradio application on Azure using Docker

This guide assumes a foundational understanding of Azure and the presence of Docker on your desktop. Refer to the Mac or Windows or Linux getting started instructions for Docker. 

Step 1: Create an Azure Container Registry resource 

Go to Azure Marketplace and search ‘container registry’ and hit ‘Create’. 

STEP 1: Create an Azure Container Registry resource
Create an Azure Container Registry resource

Under the “Basics” tab, complete the required information and leave the other settings as the default. Then, click “Review + Create.” 

Web App for Gradio Step 1A
Web App for Gradio Step 1A


Step 2: Create a Web App resource in Azure 

In Azure Marketplace, search for “Web App”, select the appropriate resource as depicted in the image, and then click “Create”. 

STEP 2: Create a Web App resource in Azure
Create a Web App resource in Azure


Under the “Basics” tab, complete the required information, choose the appropriate pricing plan and leave the other settings as the default. Then, click “Review + Create.”  

Web App for Gradio Step 2B
Web App for Gradio Step 2B


Web App for Gradio Step 2C
Web App for Gradio Step 2c


Upon completion of all deployments, the following three resources will be in your resource group. 

Web App for Gradio Step 2D
Web App for Gradio Step 2D

Step 3: Create a folder containing “App.py” file and its corresponding “requirements.txt” file 

To begin, we will utilize an emotion detector application, the model for which can be found at https://huggingface.co/bhadresh-savani/distilbert-base-uncased-emotion. 



Step 4: Launch Visual Studio Code and open the folder

Step 4: Launch Visual Studio Code and open the folder. 
Step 4: Launch Visual Studio Code and open the folder.

Step 5: Launch Docker Desktop to start Docker. 

STEP 5: Launch Docker Desktop to start Docker
STEP 5: Launch Docker Desktop to start Docker.

Step 6: Create a Dockerfile 

A Dockerfile is a script that contains instructions to build a Docker image. This file automates the process of setting up an environment, installing dependencies, copying files, and defining how to run the application. With a Dockerfile, developers can easily package their application and its dependencies into a Docker image, which can then be run as a container on any host with Docker installed. This makes it easy to distribute and run the application consistently in different environments. The following contents should be utilized in the Dockerfile: 


STEP 6: Create a Dockerfile
STEP 6: Create a Dockerfile

Step 7: Build and run a local Docker image 

Run the following commands in the VS Code terminal. 

1. docker build -t demo-gradio-app 

  • The “docker build” command builds a Docker image from a Dockerfile. 
  • The “-t demo-gradio-app” option specifies the name and optionally a tag to the name of the image in the “name:tag” format. 
  • The final “.” specifies the build context, which is the current directory where the Dockerfile is located.


2. docker run -it -d –name my-app -p 7000:7000 demo-gradio-app 

  • The “docker run” command starts a new container based on a specified image. 
  • The “-it” option opens an interactive terminal in the container and keeps the standard input attached to the terminal. 
  • The “-d” option runs the container in the background as a daemon process. 
  • The “–name my-app” option assigns a name to the container for easier management. 
  • The “-p 7000:7000” option maps a port on the host to a port inside the container, in this case, mapping the host’s port 7000 to the container’s port 7000. 
  • The “demo-gradio-app” is the name of the image to be used for the container. 

This command will start a new container with the name “my-app” from the “demo-gradio-app” image in the background, with an interactive terminal attached, and port 7000 on the host mapped to port 7000 in the container. 

Web App for Gradio Step 7A
Web App for Gradio Step 7A


Web App for Gradio Step 7B
Web App for Gradio Step 7B


To view your local app, navigate to the Containers tab in Docker Desktop, and click on link under Port. 

Web App for Gradio Step 7C
Web App for Gradio Step 7C

Step 8: Tag & Push Image to Azure Container Registry 

First enable ‘Admin user’ from ‘Access Keys’ tab in Azure Container Registry. 

STEP 8: Tag & Push Image to Azure Container Registry
Tag & Push Image to Azure Container Registry


Login to your container registry using the following command, login server, username and password can be accessed from the above step. 

docker login gradioappdemos.azurecr.io

Web App for Gradio Step 8B
Web App for Gradio Step 8B


Tag the image for uploading to your registry using the following command. 


docker tag demo-gradio-app gradioappdemos.azurecr.io/demo-gradio-app 

  • The command “docker tag demo-gradio-app gradioappdemos.azurecr.io/demo-gradio-app” is used to tag a Docker image. 
  • “docker tag” is the command used to create a new tag for a Docker image. 
  • “demo-gradio-app” is the source image name that you want to tag. 
  • “gradioappdemos.azurecr.io/demo-gradio-app” is the new image name with a repository name and optionally a tag in the “repository:tag” format. 
  • This command will create a new tag “gradioappdemos.azurecr.io/demo-gradio-app” for the “demo-gradio-app” image. This new tag can be used to reference the image in future Docker commands. 

Push the image to your registry. 

docker push gradioappdemos.azurecr.io/demo-gradio-app 

  • “docker push” is the command used to upload a Docker image to a registry. 
  • “gradioappdemos.azurecr.io/demo-gradio-app” is the name of the image with the repository name and tag to be pushed. 
  • This command will push the Docker image “gradioappdemos.azurecr.io/demo-gradio-app” to the registry specified by the repository name. The registry is typically a place where Docker images are stored and distributed to others. 
Web App for Gradio Step 8C
Web App for Gradio Step 8C


In the Repository tab, you can observe the image that has been pushed. 

Web App for Gradio Step 8D
Web App for Gradio Step 8B

Step 9: Configure the Web App 

Under the ‘Deployment Center’ tab, fill in the registry settings then hit ‘Save’. 

STEP 9: Configure the Web App
Configure the Web App


In the Configuration tab, create a new application setting for the website port 7000, as specified in the app.py file and the hit ‘Save’. 

Web App for Gradio Step 9B
Web App for Gradio Step 9B
Web App for Gradio Step 9C
Web App for Gradio Step 9C


Web App for Gradio Step 9D
Web App for Gradio Step 9D


In the Configuration tab, create a new application setting for the website port 7000, as specified in the app.py file and the hit ‘Save’. 

Web App for Gradio Step 9E
Web App for Gradio Step 9E


After the image extraction is complete, you can the view the web app URL from the Overview page. 


Web App for Gradio Step 9F
Web App for Gradio Step 9F


Web App for Gradio Step 9G
Web App for Gradio Step 9G

Step 1O: Pushing Image to Docker Hub (Optional) 

Here are the steps to push a local Docker image to Docker Hub: 

  • Login to your Docker Hub account using the following command: 

docker login

  • Tag the local image using the following command, replacing [username] with your Docker Hub username and [image_name] with the desired image name: 

docker tag [image_name] [username]/[image_name]

  • Push the image to Docker Hub using the following command: 

docker push [username]/[image_name] 

  • Verify that the image is now available in your Docker Hub repository by visiting https://hub.docker.com/ and checking your repositories. 
Web App for Gradio Step 10A
Web App for Gradio Step 10A


Web App for Gradio Step 10B
Web App for Gradio Step 10B

Wrapping it up

In conclusion, deploying a web application using Docker on Azure is an easy and efficient way to create and deploy applications. This method is suitable for those who lack the necessary coding skills to create a web app from scratch. Docker is an open-source platform for automating the deployment, scaling, and management of applications, as containers.

Azure Container Registry is a fully-managed, private Docker registry service provided by Microsoft as part of its Azure cloud platform. Azure Web Apps is a fully-managed platform for building, deploying, and scaling web applications and services. By following the step-by-step guide provided in this article, users can deploy a Gradio application on Azure using Docker.


Nathan 500x500 web
Nathan Piccini
| February 3

In this blog post, we’ll explore five project ideas that can help you build expertise in computer vision, natural language processing (NLP), sales forecasting, cancer detection, and predictive maintenance using Python. 

As a data science student, it is important to continually build and improve your skills by working on projects that are both challenging and relevant to the field. 


Computer vision with Python and OpenCV 

Computer vision is a field of artificial intelligence that focuses on the development of algorithms and models that can interpret and understand visual information. One project idea in this area could be to build a facial recognition system using Python and OpenCV.

The project would involve training a model to detect and recognize faces in images and video and comparing the performance of different algorithms. To get started, you’ll want to become familiar with the OpenCV library, which is a powerful tool for image and video processing in Python. 


NLP with Python and NLTK/spaCy 

NLP is a field of AI that deals with the interaction between computers and human language. A great project idea in this area would be to develop a text classification system to automatically categorize news articles into different topics.

This project could use Python libraries such as NLTK or spaCy to preprocess the text data, and then train a machine learning model to make predictions. The NLTK library has many useful functions for text preprocessing, such as tokenization, stemming and lemmatization, and the spaCy library is a modern library for performing complex NLP tasks. 


Learn more about Python project ideas for 2023


Sales forecasting with Python and Pandas 

Sales forecasting is an important part of business operations, and as a data science student, you should have a good understanding of how to build models that can predict future sales. A project idea in this area could be to create a sales forecasting model using Python and Pandas.

The project would involve using historical sales data to train a model that can predict future sales numbers for a particular product or market. To get started, you’ll want to become familiar with the Pandas library, which is a powerful tool for data manipulation and analysis in Python. 


Sales forecast using Python
Sales forecast using Python

Cancer detection with Python and scikit-learn 

Cancer detection is a critical area of healthcare, and machine learning can play an important role in this field. A project idea in this area could be to build a machine learning model to predict the likelihood of a patient having a certain type of cancer.

The project would use a dataset of patient medical records and explore the use of different features and algorithms for making predictions. The scikit-learn library is a powerful tool for building machine learning models in Python and it provides easy to use interface to train, test and evaluate your model. 


Learn about Python for Data Science and speed up with Python fundamentals 


Predictive maintenance with Python and Scikit-learn 

Predictive maintenance is a field of industrial operations that focuses on using data and machine learning to predict when equipment is likely to fail, so that maintenance can be scheduled in advance. A project idea in this area could be to develop a system that can analyze sensor data from the equipment, and use machine learning to identify patterns that indicate an imminent failure.

To get started, you’ll want to become familiar with the scikit-learn library and the concepts of clustering, classification and regression, as well as the python libraries for working with sensor data and machine learning. 


In a nutshell:

These are just a few project ideas to help you build your skills as a data science student. Each of these projects offers the opportunity to work with real-world data, use powerful Python libraries and tools, and develop models that can make predictions and solve complex problems. As you work on these projects, you’ll gain valuable experience that will help you advance your career in. 

Ruhma - Author
Ruhma Khawaja
| February 2

Are you looking for some great Python Project Ideas? Here is a list of the top 5 Python project ideas for students and aspiring people to practice.

Want to start a career in programming? Here are the top 5 Python project ideas 

If you keep tabs on the latest technologies, you are aware of how powerful and versatile Python is. It is widely used in numerous fields, from data science and machine learning to web development and game development. It is a widely used programming language in computer science. Its features have made it a popular choice among developers in 2022 and its trend is expected to continue in the future.  

The demand for using Python in IT projects is on the rise, due to its user-friendly nature and versatility in creating various technology applications. A growing number of individuals in the tech industry are looking for ways to improve their skills by taking on projects, volunteering, and internships using Python. As a student, learning Python can open many opportunities for you and help you build a wide range of projects that can highlight your skills and capabilities.  

Are you looking for some great Python Project Ideas? Here is a list of the top 5 Python project ideas for engineering students and aspiring coders to practice. 

Python project ideas
Python project ideas – Data Science Dojo

1. Game Development 

Game development is a fun and challenging way to learn about programming and Python is a great language for building games. Using the Pygame library, you can easily create 2D games with features such as animation, sound, and user input. It is built on top of the SDL library, which provides low-level access to audio, keyboard, mouse, and display functions.

To create a simple game using Pygame, you will need to understand the basics of game development such as game loop, event handling, and game mechanics. You can use Pygame’s built-in functions to create a game window and display 2D graphics. This project will help you learn how to use Python for game development and gain experience with 2D graphics, animation, sound, and game mechanics. It will also give you a chance to explore the possibilities of Pygame library and create your own game. 


2. Weather App 

Creating a weather app is a great project idea for those interested in building applications that interact with external APIs. API, short for Application Programming Interface, are a set of rules and protocols that allow software systems to communicate. In this case, we will be using a weather API that provides current weather information for a given location. To build this weather app, you will first need to find a weather API that you can use.

To build a weather app with the request’s library in Python, first you choose a weather API and sign up for an API key. Next, you install the requests library in Python and fetch weather data with requests.get() and parse with json.loads(). Then, use pandas and matplotlib to analyze and visualize data and then create a user interface with a library like tkinter or PyQt. Lastly, try-except blocks for error handling and deploy your project on a web server or cloud platform if desired. 


Enroll in ‘Python for Data Science’ To learn Python and its effective use in data analysis, analytics, machine learning, and data science. 


3. Data Analysis 

Data analysis is an essential skill for many fields, and Python is an excellent language for working with data. The pandas and matplotlib libraries are commonly used in data analysis and visualization. Pandas is a powerful library for working with data in Python. Matplotlib is a plotting library for creating static, animated, and interactive visualizations in Python. It is used to create a wide variety of plots, including line plots, scatter plots, histograms, and heat maps. It also allows you to customize the appearance of the plots to match your needs. 

To start this project, select a dataset so that you can use pandas to read the data into a Data Frame and perform various operations on it. Then, you must clean and filter the data. Next, you can use matplotlib to create various visualizations of the data. This project will help you learn how to work with data in Python, gain experience with data analysis and visualization, and learn to use the pandas and matplotlib libraries.  


4. Chatbot 

Another hot topic is creating a chatbot. A chatbot is a computer program that simulates human conversation, and it can be used in a wide range of applications, such as customer service, e-commerce, and personal assistants. To build a chatbot using Python, you will need to use a combination of NLP and ML techniques.

For NLP, you can use Python libraries such as NLTK and Spacy, which provide tools for tokenizing, stemming, and lemmatizing text, as well as for performing part-of-speech tagging and named entity recognition. This project can have good learning outcomes like learning usage of natural language processing and machine learning techniques in Python. 


Learn about Top Python Packages


5. Web Scraper 

Web scraping is the process of extracting data from websites and a web scraper is a tool that automates this process. Creating a web scraper using Python’s Beautiful Soup library is a great project idea for those interested in web development and data mining. To build a web scraper, you will first need to install the Beautiful Soup library and the requests library. Another way is Selenium, a tool used for automating web browsers to do several tasks. 

The requests library is used to send an HTTP request to a website and retrieve the HTML source code, while Beautiful Soup is used to parse the HTML and extract the data. Beautiful Soup’s methods and selectors are used to extract the data required. 


Bottom Line 

In conclusion, there are countless possibilities for Python projects, these are just a small selection of ideas to spark inspiration. The key to success is to find a project that aligns with your interests and start experimenting with the vast array of libraries and frameworks that Python has to offer. With a bit of creativity and persistence, you can create something truly remarkable and elevate your skills to new heights.