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large language models

Fiza Author image
Fiza Fatima
| February 29

Welcome to the world of open-source (LLMs) large language models, where the future of technology meets community spirit. By breaking down the barriers of proprietary systems, open language models invite developers, researchers, and enthusiasts from around the globe to contribute to, modify, and improve upon the foundational models.

This collaborative spirit not only accelerates advancements in the field but also ensures that the benefits of AI technology are accessible to a broader audience. As we navigate through the intricacies of open-source language models, we’ll uncover the challenges and opportunities that come with adopting an open-source model, the ecosystems that support these endeavors, and the real-world applications that are transforming industries.

Benefits of open-source LLMs

As soon as ChatGPT was revealed, OpenAI’s GPT models quickly rose to prominence. However, businesses began to recognize the high costs associated with closed-source models, questioning the value of investing in large models that lacked specific knowledge about their operations.

In response, many opted for smaller open LLMs, utilizing Retriever-And-Generator (RAG) pipelines to integrate their data, achieving comparable or even superior efficiency.

There are several advantages to closed-source large language models worth considering.

Benefits of Open-Source large language models LLMs

  1. Cost-effectiveness:

Open-source Large Language Models (LLMs) present a cost-effective alternative to their proprietary counterparts, offering organizations a financially viable means to harness AI capabilities.

  • No licensing fees are required, significantly lowering initial and ongoing expenses.
  • Organizations can freely deploy these models, leading to direct cost reductions.
  • Open large language models allow for specific customization, enhancing efficiency without the need for vendor-specific customization services.
  1. Flexibility:

Companies are increasingly preferring the flexibility to switch between open and proprietary (closed) models to mitigate risks associated with relying solely on one type of model.

This flexibility is crucial because a model provider’s unexpected update or failure to keep the model current can negatively affect a company’s operations and customer experience.

Companies often lean towards open language models when they want more control over their data and the ability to fine-tune models for specific tasks using their data, making the model more effective for their unique needs.

  1. Data ownership and control:

Companies leveraging open-source language models gain significant control and ownership over their data, enhancing security and compliance through various mechanisms. Here’s a concise overview of the benefits and controls offered by using open large language models:

Data hosting control:

  • Choice of data hosting on-premises or with trusted cloud providers.
  • Crucial for protecting sensitive data and ensuring regulatory compliance.

Internal data processing:

  • Avoids sending sensitive data to external servers.
  • Reduces the risk of data breaches and enhances privacy.

Customizable data security features:

  • Flexibility to implement data anonymization and encryption.
  • Helps comply with data protection laws like GDPR and CCPA.

Transparency and audibility:

  • The open-source nature allows for code and process audits.
  • Ensures alignment with internal and external compliance standards.

Examples of enterprises leveraging open-source LLMs

Here are examples of how different companies around the globe have started leveraging open language models.

enterprises leveraging open-source LLMs in 2024

  1. VMWare

VMWare, a noted enterprise in the field of cloud computing and digitalization, has deployed an open language model called the HuggingFace StarCoder. Their motivation for using this model is to enhance the productivity of their developers by assisting them in generating code.

This strategic move suggests VMware’s priority for internal code security and the desire to host the model on their infrastructure. It contrasts with using an external system like Microsoft-owned GitHub’s Copilot, possibly due to sensitivities around their codebase and not wanting to give Microsoft access to it

  1. Brave

Brave, the security-focused web browser company, has deployed an open-source large language model called Mixtral 8x7B from Mistral AI for their conversational assistant named Leo, which aims to differentiate the company by emphasizing privacy.

Previously, Leo utilized the Llama 2 model, but Brave has since updated the assistant to default to the Mixtral 8x7B model. This move illustrates the company’s commitment to integrating open LLM technologies to maintain user privacy and enhance their browser’s functionality.

  1. Gab Wireless

Gab Wireless, the company focused on child-friendly mobile phone services, is using a suite of open-source models from Hugging Face to add a security layer to its messaging system. The aim is to screen the messages sent and received by children to ensure that no inappropriate content is involved in their communications. This usage of open language models helps Gab Wireless ensure safety and security in children’s interactions, particularly with individuals they do not know.

  1. IBM

IBM actively incorporates open models across various operational areas.

  • AskHR application: Utilizes IBM’s Watson Orchestration and open language models for efficient HR query resolution.
  • Consulting advantage tool: Features a “Library of Assistants” powered by IBM’s wasonx platform and open-source large language models, aiding consultants.
  • Marketing initiatives: Employs an LLM-driven application, integrated with Adobe Firefly, for innovative content and image generation in marketing.
  1. Intuit

Intuit, the company behind TurboTax, QuickBooks, and Mailchimp, has developed its language models incorporating open LLMs into the mix. These models are key components of Intuit Assist, a feature designed to help users with customer support, analysis, and completing various tasks. The company’s approach to building these large language models involves using open-source frameworks, augmented with Intuit’s unique, proprietary data.

  1. Shopify

Shopify has employed publically available language models in the form of Shopify Sidekick, an AI-powered tool that utilizes Llama 2. This tool assists small business owners with automating tasks related to managing their commerce websites. It can generate product descriptions, respond to customer inquiries, and create marketing content, thereby helping merchants save time and streamline their operations.

  1. LyRise

LyRise, a U.S.-based talent-matching startup, utilizes open language models by employing a chatbot built on Llama, which operates similarly to a human recruiter. This chatbot assists businesses in finding and hiring top AI and data talent, drawing from a pool of high-quality profiles in Africa across various industries.

  1. Niantic

Niantic, known for creating Pokémon Go, has integrated open-source large language models into its game through the new feature called Peridot. This feature uses Llama 2 to generate environment-specific reactions and animations for the pet characters, enhancing the gaming experience by making character interactions more dynamic and context-aware.

  1. Perplexity

Here’s how Perplexity leverages open-source LLMs

  • Response generation process:

When a user poses a question, Perplexity’s engine executes approximately six steps to craft a response. This process involves the use of multiple language models, showcasing the company’s commitment to delivering comprehensive and accurate answers.

In a crucial phase of response preparation, specifically the second-to-last step, Perplexity employs its own specially developed open-source language models. These models, which are enhancements of existing frameworks like Mistral and Llama, are tailored to succinctly summarize content relevant to the user’s inquiry.

The fine-tuning of these models is conducted on AWS Bedrock, emphasizing the choice of open models for greater customization and control. This strategy underlines Perplexity’s dedication to refining its technology to produce superior outcomes.

  • Partnership and API integration:

Expanding its technological reach, Perplexity has entered into a partnership with Rabbit to incorporate its open-source large language models into the R1, a compact AI device. This collaboration facilitated through an API, extends the application of Perplexity’s innovative models, marking a significant stride in practical AI deployment.

  1. CyberAgent

CyberAgent, a Japanese digital advertising firm, leverages open language models with its OpenCALM initiative, a customizable Japanese language model enhancing its AI-driven advertising services like Kiwami Prediction AI. By adopting an open-source approach, CyberAgent aims to encourage collaborative AI development and gain external insights, fostering AI advancements in Japan. Furthermore, a partnership with Dell Technologies has upgraded their server and GPU capabilities, significantly boosting model performance (up to 5.14 times faster), thereby streamlining service updates and enhancements for greater efficiency and cost-effectiveness.

Challenges of open-source LLMs

While open LLMs offer numerous benefits, there are substantial challenges that can plague the users.

  1. Customization necessity:

Open language models often come as general-purpose models, necessitating significant customization to align with an enterprise’s unique workflows and operational processes. This customization is crucial for the models to deliver value, requiring enterprises to invest in development resources to adapt these models to their specific needs.

  1. Support and governance:

Unlike proprietary models that offer dedicated support and clear governance structures, publically available large language models present challenges in managing support and ensuring proper governance. Enterprises must navigate these challenges by either developing internal expertise or engaging with the open-source community for support, which can vary in responsiveness and expertise.

  1. Reliability of techniques:

Techniques like Retrieval-Augmented Generation aim to enhance language models by incorporating proprietary data. However, these techniques are not foolproof and can sometimes introduce inaccuracies or inconsistencies, posing challenges in ensuring the reliability of the model outputs.

  1. Language support:

While proprietary models like GPT are known for their robust performance across various languages, open-source large language models may exhibit variable performance levels. This inconsistency can affect enterprises aiming to deploy language models in multilingual environments, necessitating additional effort to ensure adequate language support.

  1. Deployment complexity:

Deploying publically available language models, especially at scale, involves complex technical challenges. These range from infrastructure considerations to optimizing model performance, requiring significant technical expertise and resources to overcome.

  1. Uncertainty and risk:

Relying solely on one type of model, whether open or closed source, introduces risks such as the potential for unexpected updates by the provider that could affect model behavior or compliance with regulatory standards.

  1. Legal and ethical considerations:

Deploying LLMs entails navigating legal and ethical considerations, from ensuring compliance with data protection regulations to addressing the potential impact of AI on customer experiences. Enterprises must consider these factors to avoid legal repercussions and maintain trust with their users.

  1. Lack of public examples:

The scarcity of publicly available case studies on the deployment of publically available LLMs in enterprise settings makes it challenging for organizations to gauge the effectiveness and potential return on investment of these models in similar contexts.

Overall, while there are significant potential benefits to using publically available language models in enterprise settings, including cost savings and the flexibility to fine-tune models, addressing these challenges is critical for successful deployment

Embracing open-source LLMs: A path to innovation and flexibility

In conclusion, open-source language models represent a pivotal shift towards more accessible, customizable, and cost-effective AI solutions for enterprises. They offer a unique blend of benefits, including significant cost savings, enhanced data control, and the ability to tailor AI tools to specific business needs, while also presenting challenges such as the need for customization and navigating support complexities.

Through the collaborative efforts of the global open-source community and the innovative use of these models across various industries, enterprises are finding new ways to leverage AI for growth and efficiency.

However, success in this endeavor requires a strategic approach to overcome inherent challenges, ensuring that businesses can fully harness the potential of publically available LLMs to drive innovation and maintain a competitive edge in the fast-evolving digital landscape.

Fiza Author image
Fiza Fatima
| February 15

Large Language Models have surged in popularity due to their remarkable ability to understand, generate, and interact with human language with unprecedented accuracy and fluency.

This surge is largely attributed to advancements in machine learning and the vast increase in computational power, enabling these models to process and learn from billions of words and texts on the internet.

OpenAI significantly shaped the landscape of LLMs with the introduction of GPT-3.5, marking a pivotal moment in the field. Unlike its predecessors, GPT-3.5 was not fully open-source, giving rise to closed-source large language models.

This move was driven by considerations around control, quality, and the commercial potential of such powerful models. OpenAI’s approach showcased the potential for proprietary models to deliver cutting-edge AI capabilities while also igniting discussions about accessibility and innovation.

The introduction of open-source LLM 

Contrastingly, companies like Meta and Mistral have opted for a different approach by releasing models like LLaMA and Mistral as open-source.

These models not only challenge the dominance of closed-source models like GPT-3.5 but also fuel the ongoing debate over which approach—open-source or closed-source—yields better results. Read more

By making their models openly available, Meta and similar entities encourage widespread innovation, allowing researchers and developers to improve upon these models, which in turn, has seen them topping performance leaderboards.

From an enterprise standpoint, understanding the differences between open-source LLM and closed-source LLM is crucial. The choice between the two can significantly impact an organization’s ability to innovate, control costs, and tailor solutions to specific needs.

Let’s dig in to understand the difference between Open-Source LLM and Closed Source LLM

What are open-source large language models

Open-source large language models, such as the ones offered by Meta AI, provide a foundational AI technology that can analyze and generate human-like text by learning from vast datasets consisting of various written materials.

As open-source software, these language models have their source code and underlying architecture publicly accessible, allowing developers, researchers, and enterprises to use, modify, and distribute them freely.

Let’s dig into different features of open-sourced large language models

1. Community contributions

  • Broad participation:

    Open-source projects allow anyone to contribute, from individual hobbyists to researchers and developers from various industries. This diversity in the contributor base brings a wide array of perspectives, skills, and needs into the project.

  • Innovation and problem-solving:

    Different contributors may identify unique problems or have innovative ideas for applications that the original developers hadn’t considered. For example, someone might improve the model’s performance on a specific language or dialect, develop a new method for reducing bias, or create tools that make the model more accessible to non-technical users.

2. Wide range of applications

  • Specialized use cases:

    Contributors often adapt and extend open-source models for specialized use cases. For instance, a developer might fine-tune a language model on legal documents to create a tool that assists in legal research or on medical literature to support healthcare professionals.

  • New features and enhancements:

    Through experimenting with the model, contributors might develop new features, such as more efficient training algorithms, novel ways to interpret the model’s outputs, or integration capabilities with other software tools.

3. Iterative improvement and evolution

  • Feedback loop:

    The open-source model encourages a cycle of continuous improvement. As the community uses and experiments with the model, they can identify shortcomings, bugs, or opportunities for enhancement. Contributions addressing these points can be merged back into the project, making the model more robust and versatile over time.

  • Collaboration and knowledge sharing:

    Open-source projects facilitate collaboration and knowledge sharing within the community. Contributions are often documented and discussed publicly, allowing others to learn from them, build upon them, and apply them in new contexts.

4. Examples of open-sourced large language models

What are closed-source large language models

Closed-source large language models, such as GPT-3.5 by OpenAI, embody advanced AI technologies capable of analyzing and generating human-like text through learning from extensive datasets.

Unlike their open-source counterparts, the source code and architecture of closed-source language models are proprietary, accessible only under specific terms defined by their creators. This exclusivity allows for controlled development, distribution, and usage.

Features of closed-sourced large language models

1. Controlled quality and consistency

  • Centralized development: Closed-source projects are developed, maintained, and updated by a dedicated team, ensuring a consistent quality and direction of the project. This centralized approach facilitates the implementation of high standards and systematic updates.
  • Reliability and stability: With a focused team of developers, closed-source LLMs often offer greater reliability and stability, making them suitable for enterprise applications where consistency is critical.

2. Commercial support and innovation

  • Vendor support: Closed-source models come with professional support and services from the vendor, offering assistance for integration, troubleshooting, and optimization, which can be particularly valuable for businesses.
  • Proprietary innovations:  The controlled environment of closed-source development enables the introduction of unique, proprietary features and improvements, often driving forward the technology’s frontier in specialized applications.

3. Exclusive use and intellectual property

  • Competitive advantage: The proprietary nature of closed-source language models allows businesses to leverage advanced AI capabilities as a competitive advantage, without revealing the underlying technology to competitors.
  • Intellectual property protection: Closed-source licensing protects the intellectual property of the developers, ensuring that their innovations remain exclusive and commercially valuable.

4. Customization and integration

  • Tailored solutions: While customization in closed-source models is more restricted than in open-source alternatives, vendors often provide tailored solutions or allow certain levels of configuration to meet specific business needs.
  • Seamless integration: Closed-source large language models are designed to integrate smoothly with existing systems and software, providing a seamless experience for businesses and end-users.

Examples of close-source large language Mmodels

  1. GPT 3.5 by OpenAI
  2. Gemini by Google
  3. Claude by Anthropic


Read: Should Large Language Models be Open-Sourced? Stepping into the Biggest Debates


Open-source and closed-source language models for enterprise adoption:

Open-Source LLMs Vs Close-Source LLMs for enterprises


In terms of enterprise adoption, comparing open-source and closed-source large language models involves evaluating various factors such as costs, innovation pace, support, customization, and intellectual property rights. While I can’t directly access external sources like the VentureBeat article you mentioned, I can provide a general comparison based on known aspects of how enterprises use these models:


  • Open-Source: Generally offers lower initial costs since there are no licensing fees for the software itself. However, enterprises may incur costs related to infrastructure, development, and potentially higher operational costs due to the need for in-house expertise to customize, maintain, and update the models.
  • Closed-Source: Often involves licensing fees, subscription costs, or usage-based pricing, which can predictably scale with use. While the initial and ongoing costs can be higher, these models frequently come with vendor support, reducing the need for extensive in-house expertise and potentially lowering overall maintenance and operational costs.

Innovation and updates

  • Open-Source: The pace of innovation can be rapid, thanks to contributions from a diverse and global community. Enterprises can benefit from the continuous improvements and updates made by contributors. However, the direction of innovation may not always align with specific enterprise needs.
  • Closed-Source: Innovation is managed by the vendor, which can ensure that updates are consistent and high-quality. While the pace of innovation might be slower compared to the open-source community, it’s often more predictable and aligned with enterprise needs, especially for vendors closely working with their client base.

Support and reliability

  • Open-Source: Support primarily comes from the community, forums, and potentially from third-party vendors offering professional services. While there can be a wealth of shared knowledge, response times and the availability of help can vary.
  • Closed-Source: Typically comes with professional support from the vendor, including customer service, technical support, and even dedicated account management. This can ensure reliability and quick resolution of issues, which is crucial for enterprise applications.

Customization and flexibility

  • Open-Source: Offer high levels of customization and flexibility, allowing enterprises to modify the models to fit their specific needs. This can be particularly valuable for niche applications or when integrating the model into complex systems.
  • Closed-Source: Customization is usually more limited compared to open-source models. While some vendors offer customization options, changes are generally confined to the parameters and options provided by the vendor.

Intellectual property and competitive advantage

  • Open-Source: Using open-source models can complicate intellectual property (IP) considerations, especially if modifications are shared publicly. However, they allow enterprises to build proprietary solutions on top of open technologies, potentially offering a competitive advantage through innovation.
  • Closed-Source: The use of closed-source models clearly defines IP rights, with enterprises typically not owning the underlying technology. However, leveraging cutting-edge, proprietary models can provide a different type of competitive advantage through access to exclusive technologies.

Choosing Between Open-Source LLMs and Closed-Source LLMs

The choice between open-source and closed-source language models for enterprise adoption involves weighing these factors in the context of specific business objectives, resources, and strategic directions.

Open-source models can offer cost advantages, customization, and rapid innovation but require significant in-house expertise and management. Closed-source models provide predictability, support, and ease of use at a higher cost, potentially making them a more suitable choice for enterprises looking for ready-to-use, reliable AI solutions.

Izma Aziz
Izma Aziz
| February 6

Imagine staring at a blank screen, the cursor blinking impatiently. You know you have a story to tell, but the words just won’t flow. You’ve brainstormed, outlined, and even consumed endless cups of coffee, but inspiration remains elusive. This was often the reality for writers, especially in the fast-paced world of blog writing.

In this struggle, enter chatbots as potential saviors, promising to spark ideas with ease. But their responses often felt generic, trapped in a one-size-fits-all format that stifled creativity. It was like trying to create a masterpiece with a paint-by-numbers kit.

Then comes Dynamic Few-Shot Prompting into the scene. This revolutionary technique is a game-changer in the creative realm, empowering language models to craft more accurate, engaging content that resonates with readers.

It addresses the challenges by dynamically selecting a relevant subset of examples for prompts, allowing for a tailored and diverse set of creative responses specific to user needs. Think of it as having access to a versatile team of writers, each specializing in different styles and genres.

Quick prompting test for you


To comprehend this exciting technique, let’s first delve into its parent concept: Few-shot prompting.

Few-Shot Prompting

Few-shot prompting is a technique in natural language processing that involves providing a language model with a limited set of task-specific examples, often referred to as “shots,” to guide its responses in a desired way. This means you can “teach” the model how to respond on the fly simply by showing it a few examples of what you want it to do.

In this approach, the user collects examples representing the desired output or behavior. These examples are then integrated into a prompt instructing the Large Language Model (LLM) on how to generate the intended responses.

Large language model bootcamp

The prompt, including the task-specific examples, is then fed into the LLM, allowing it to leverage the provided context to produce new and contextually relevant outputs.


few-shot prompting at a glance
Few-shot prompting at a glance


Unlike zero-shot prompting, where the model relies solely on its pre-existing knowledge, few-shot prompting enables the model to benefit from in-context learning by incorporating specific task-related examples within the prompt.


Dynamic few-shot prompting: Taking it to the next level

Dynamic Few-Shot Prompting takes this adaptability a step further by dynamically selecting the most relevant examples based on the specific context of a user’s query. This means the model can tailor its responses even more precisely, resulting in more relevant and engaging content.

To choose relevant examples, various methods can be employed. In this blog, we’ll explore the semantic example selector, which retrieves the most relevant examples through semantic matching. 

Enhancing adaptability with dynamic few-shot prompting
Enhancing adaptability with dynamic few-shot prompting


What is the importance of dynamic few-shot prompting? 

The significance of Dynamic Few-Shot Prompting lies in its ability to address critical challenges faced by modern Large Language Models (LLMs). With limited context lengths in LLMs, processing longer prompts becomes challenging, requiring increased computational resources and incurring higher financial costs.

Dynamic Few-Shot Prompting optimizes efficiency by strategically utilizing a subset of training data, effectively managing resources. This adaptability allows the model to dynamically select relevant examples, catering precisely to user queries, resulting in more precise, engaging, and cost-effective responses.  

A closer look (with code!)

It’s time to get technical! Let’s delve into the workings of Dynamic Few-Shot Prompting using the LangChain Framework.

Importing necessary modules and libraries.


In the .env file, I have my OpenAI API key and base URL stored for secure access.



This code defines an example prompt template with input variables “user_query” and “blog_format” to be utilized in the FewShotPromptTemplate of LangChain.


user_query_1 = “Write a technical blog on topic [user topic]” 


blog_format_1 = “”” 

**Title:** [Compelling and informative title related to user topic] 



* Introduce the topic in a clear and concise way. 

* State the problem or question that the blog will address. 

* Briefly outline the key points that will be covered. 



* Break down the topic into well-organized sections with clear headings. 

* Use bullet points, numbered lists, and diagrams to enhance readability. 

* Provide code examples or screenshots where applicable. 

* Explain complex concepts in a simple and approachable manner. 

* Use technical terms accurately, but avoid jargon that might alienate readers. 



* Summarize the main takeaways of the blog. 

* Offer a call to action, such as inviting readers to learn more or try a new technique. 


**Additional tips for technical blogs:** 

* Use visuals to illustrate concepts and break up text. 

* Link to relevant resources for further reading. 

* Proofread carefully for accuracy and clarity. 



user_query_2 = “Write a humorous blog on topic [user topic]” 


blog_format_2 = “”” 

**Title:** [Witty and attention-grabbing title that makes readers laugh before they even start reading] 



* Set the tone with a funny anecdote or observation. 

* Introduce the topic with a playful twist. 

* Tease the hilarious insights to come. 



* Use puns, wordplay, exaggeration, and unexpected twists to keep readers entertained. 

* Share relatable stories and experiences that poke fun at everyday life. 

* Incorporate pop culture references or current events for added relevance. 

* Break the fourth wall and address the reader directly to create a sense of connection. 



* End on a high note with a punchline or final joke that leaves readers wanting more. 

* Encourage readers to share their own funny stories or experiences related to the topic. 


**Additional tips for humorous blogs:** 

* Keep it light and avoid sensitive topics. 

* Use visual humor like memes or GIFs. 

* Read your blog aloud to ensure the jokes land. 


user_query_3 = “Write an adventure blog about a trip to [location]” 


blog_format_3 = “”” 

**Title:** [Evocative and exciting title that captures the spirit of adventure] 



* Set the scene with vivid descriptions of the location and its atmosphere. 

* Introduce the protagonist (you or a character) and their motivations for the adventure. 

* Hint at the challenges and obstacles that await. 



* Chronicle the journey in chronological order, using sensory details to bring it to life. 

* Describe the sights, sounds, smells, and tastes of the location. 

* Share personal anecdotes and reflections on the experience. 

* Build suspense with cliffhangers and unexpected twists. 

* Capture the emotions of excitement, fear, wonder, and accomplishment. 



* Reflect on the lessons learned and the personal growth experienced during the adventure. 

* Inspire readers to seek out their own adventures. 


**Additional tips for adventure blogs:** 

* Use high-quality photos and videos to showcase the location. 

* Incorporate maps or interactive elements to enhance the experience. 

* Write in a conversational style that draws readers in. 



These examples showcase different blog formats, each tailored to a specific genre. The three dummy examples include a technical blog template with a focus on clarity and code, a humorous blog template designed for entertainment with humor elements, and an adventure blog template emphasizing vivid storytelling and immersive details about a location.

While these are just three examples for simplicity, more formats can be added, to cater to diverse writing styles and topics. Instead of examples showcasing formats, original blogs can also be utilized as examples.



Next, we’ll compile a list from the crafted examples. This list will be passed to the example selector to store them in the vector store with vector embeddings. This arrangement enables semantic matching to these examples at a later stage.



Now initialize AzureOpenAIEmbeddings() for creating embeddings used in semantic similarity. 



Now comes the example selector that stores the provided examples in a vector store. When a user asks a question, it retrieves the most relevant example based on semantic similarity. In this case, k=1 ensures only one relevant example is retrieved.



This code sets up a FewShotPromptTemplate for dynamic few-shot prompting in LangChain. The ExampleSelector is used to fetch relevant examples based on semantic similarity, and these examples are incorporated into the prompt along with the user query. The resulting template is then ready for generating dynamic and tailored responses.




AI output
A sample output


This output gives an understanding of the final prompt that our LLM will use for generating responses. When the user query is “I’m writing a blog on Machine Learning. What topics should I cover?”, the ExampleSelector employs semantic similarity to fetch the most relevant example, specifically a template for a technical blog.


Hence the resulting prompt integrates instructions, the retrieved example, and the user query, offering a customized structure for crafting engaging content related to Machine Learning. With k=1, only one example is retrieved to shape the response.



As our prompt is ready, now we will initialize an Azure ChatGPT model to generate a tailored blog structure response based on a user query using dynamic few-shot prompting.


Learn to build LLM applications




Generative AI sample output
Generative AI sample output


The LLM efficiently generates a blog structure tailored to the user’s query, adhering to the format of technical blogs, and showcasing how dynamic few-shot prompting can provide relevant and formatted content based on user input.   




To conclude, Dynamic Few-Shot Prompting takes the best of two worlds (few-shot prompts and zero-shot prompts) and makes language models even better. It helps them understand your goals using smart examples, focusing only on relevant things according to the user’s query. This saves resources and opens the door for innovative use.

Dynamic Few-Shot Prompting adapts well to the token limitations of Large Language Models (LLMs) giving efficient results. As this technology advances, it will revolutionize the way Large Language Models respond, making them more efficient in various applications. 

Data Science Dojo
Ayesha Saleem
| January 24

Large language models (LLMs) are a fascinating aspect of machine learning.

Regarding selective prediction in large language models, it refers to the model’s ability to generate specific predictions or responses based on the given input.

This means that the model can focus on certain aspects of the input text to make more relevant or context-specific predictions. For example, if asked a question, the model will selectively predict an answer relevant to that question, ignoring unrelated information.


They function by employing deep learning techniques and analyzing vast datasets of text. Here’s a simple breakdown of how they work:

  1. Architecture: LLMs use a transformer architecture, which is highly effective in handling sequential data like language. This architecture allows the model to consider the context of each word in a sentence, enabling more accurate predictions and the generation of text.
  2. Training: They are trained on enormous amounts of text data. During this process, the model learns patterns, structures, and nuances of human language. This training involves predicting the next word in a sentence or filling in missing words, thereby understanding language syntax and semantics.
  3. Capabilities: Once trained, LLMs can perform a variety of tasks such as translation, summarization, question answering, and content generation. They can understand and generate text in a way that is remarkably similar to human language.


Learn to build LLM applications


How selective predictions work in LLMs

Selective prediction in the context of large language models (LLMs) is a technique aimed at enhancing the reliability and accuracy of the model’s outputs. Here’s how it works in detail:

  1. Decision to Predict or Abstain: At its core, selective prediction involves the model making a choice about whether to make a prediction or to abstain from doing so. This decision is based on the model’s confidence in its ability to provide a correct or relevant answer.
  2. Improving Reliability: By allowing LLMs to abstain from making predictions in cases where they are unsure, selective prediction improves the overall reliability of the model. This is crucial in applications where providing incorrect information can have serious consequences.
  3. Self-Evaluation: Some selective prediction techniques involve self-evaluation mechanisms. These allow the model to assess its own predictions and decide whether they are likely to be accurate or not. For example, experiments with models like PaLM-2 and GPT-3 have shown that self-evaluation-based scores can improve accuracy and correlation with correct answers.
  4. Advanced Techniques like ASPIRE: Google’s ASPIRE framework is an example of an advanced approach to selective prediction. It enhances the ability of LLMs to make more confident predictions by effectively assessing when to predict and when to withhold a response.
  5. Selective Prediction in Applications: This technique can be particularly useful in applications like conformal prediction, multi-choice question answering, and filtering out low-quality predictions. It ensures that the model provides responses only when it has a high degree of confidence, thereby reducing the risk of disseminating incorrect information.


Large language model bootcamp


Here’s how it works and improves response quality:


Imagine using a language model for a task like answering trivia questions. The LLM is prompted with a question: “What is the capital of France?” Normally, the model would generate a response based on its training.

However, with selective prediction, the model first evaluates its confidence in its knowledge about the answer. If it’s highly confident (knowing that Paris is the capital), it proceeds with the response. If not, it may abstain from answering or express uncertainty rather than providing a potentially incorrect answer.



Improvement in response quality:

  1. Reduces Misinformation: By abstaining from answering when uncertain, selective prediction minimizes the risk of spreading incorrect information.
  2. Enhances Reliability: It improves the overall reliability of the model by ensuring that responses are given only when the model has high confidence in their accuracy.
  3. Better User Trust: Users can trust the model more, knowing that it avoids guessing when unsure, leading to higher quality and more dependable interactions.

Selective prediction, therefore, plays a vital role in enhancing the quality and reliability of responses in real-world applications of LLMs.


ASPIRE framework for selective predictions

The ASPIRE framework, particularly in the context of selective prediction for Large Language Models (LLMs), is a sophisticated process designed to enhance the model’s prediction capabilities. It comprises three main stages:

  1. Task-Specific Tuning: In this initial stage, the LLM is fine-tuned for specific tasks. This means adjusting the model’s parameters and training it on data relevant to the tasks it will perform. This step ensures that the model is well-prepared and specialized for the type of predictions it will make.
  2. Answer Sampling: After tuning, the LLM engages in answer sampling. Here, the model generates multiple potential answers or responses to a given input. This process allows the model to explore a range of possible predictions rather than settle on the first plausible option.
  3. Self-Evaluation Learning: The final stage involves self-evaluation learning. The model evaluates the generated answers from the previous stage, assessing their quality and relevance. It learns to identify which answers are most likely to be correct or useful based on its training and the specific context of the question or task.


three stages of aspire




Helping businesses with informed decision-making

Businesses and industries can greatly benefit from adopting selective prediction frameworks like ASPIRE in several ways:

  1. Enhanced Decision Making: By using selective prediction, businesses can make more informed decisions. The framework’s focus on task-specific tuning and self-evaluation allows for more accurate predictions, which is crucial in strategic planning and market analysis.
  2. Risk Management: Selective prediction helps in identifying and mitigating risks. By accurately predicting market trends and customer behavior, businesses can proactively address potential challenges.
  3. Efficiency in Operations: In industries such as manufacturing, selective prediction can optimize supply chain management and production processes. This leads to reduced waste and increased efficiency.
  4. Improved Customer Experience: In service-oriented sectors, predictive frameworks can enhance customer experience by personalizing services and anticipating customer needs more accurately.
  5. Innovation and Competitiveness: Selective prediction aids in fostering innovation by identifying new market opportunities and trends. This helps businesses stay competitive in their respective industries.
  6. Cost Reduction: By making more accurate predictions, businesses can reduce costs associated with trial and error and inefficient processes.


Learn more about how DALLE, GPT 3, and MuseNet are reshaping industries.


Enhance trust with LLMs

Selective prediction frameworks like ASPIRE offer businesses and industries a strategic advantage by enhancing decision-making, improving operational efficiency, managing risks, fostering innovation, and ultimately leading to cost savings.

Overall, the ASPIRE framework is designed to refine the predictive capabilities of LLMs, making them more accurate and reliable by focusing on task-specific tuning, exploratory answer generation, and self-assessment of generated responses

In summary, selective prediction in LLMs is about the model’s ability to judge its own certainty and decide when to provide a response. This enhances the trustworthiness and applicability of LLMs in various domains.

Data Science Dojo
Waleed Ahmed
| December 20

 Large language models (LLMs), such as OpenAI’s GPT-4, are swiftly metamorphosing from mere text generators into autonomous, goal-oriented entities displaying intricate reasoning abilities. This crucial shift carries the potential to revolutionize the manner in which humans connect with AI, ushering us into a new frontier.

This blog will break down the working of these agents, illustrating the impact they impart on what is known as the ‘Lang Chain’. 


Working of the agents 

Our exploration into the realm of LLM agents begins with understanding the key elements of their structure, namely the LLM core, the Prompt Recipe, the Interface and Interaction, and Memory. The LLM core forms the fundamental scaffold of an LLM agent. It is a neural network trained on a large dataset, serving as the primary source of the agent’s abilities in text comprehension and generation. 

The functionality of these agents heavily relies on prompt engineering. Prompt recipes are carefully crafted sets of instructions that shape the agent’s behaviors, knowledge, goals, and persona and embed them in prompts. 


langchain agents



The agent’s interaction with the outer world is dictated by its user interface, which could vary from command-line, graphical, to conversational interfaces. In the case of fully autonomous agents, prompts are programmatically received from other systems or agents.

Another crucial aspect of their structure is the inclusion of memory, which can be categorized into short-term and long-term. While the former helps the agent be aware of recent actions and conversation histories, the latter works in conjunction with an external database to recall information from the past. 


Learn in detail about LangChain


Ingredients involved in agent creation 

Creating robust and capable LLM agents demands integrating the core LLM with additional components for knowledge, memory, interfaces, and tools.



The LLM forms the foundation, while three key elements are required to allow these agents to understand instructions, demonstrate essential skills, and collaborate with humans: the underlying LLM architecture itself, effective prompt engineering, and the agent’s interface. 



Tools are functions that an agent can invoke. There are two important design considerations around tools: 

  • Giving the agent access to the right tools 
  • Describing the tools in a way that is most helpful to the agent 

Without thinking through both, you won’t be able to build a working agent. If you don’t give the agent access to a correct set of tools, it will never be able to accomplish the objectives you give it. If you don’t describe the tools well, the agent won’t know how to use them properly. Some of the vital tools a working agent needs are:


  1. SerpAPI : This page covers how to use the SerpAPI search APIs within Lang Chain. It is broken into two parts: installation and setup, and then references to the specific SerpAPI wrapper. Here are the details for its installation and setup:
  • Install requirements with pip install google-search-results 
  • Get a SerpAPI api key and either set it as an environment variable (SERPAPI_API_KEY) 

You can also easily load this wrapper as a tool (to use with an agent). You can do this with:



2. Math-tool: The llm-math tool wraps an LLM to do math operations. It can be loaded into the agent tools like: 

Python-REPL tool: Allows agents to execute Python code. To load this tool, you can use: 


Working of agents in LangChain: Exploring the dynamics | Data Science Dojo

Working of agents in LangChain: Exploring the dynamics | Data Science Dojo




The action of python REPL allows agent to execute the input code and provide the response. 


The impact of agents: 

A noteworthy advantage of LLM agents is their potential to exhibit self-initiated behaviors ranging from purely reactive to highly proactive. This can be harnessed to create versatile AI partners capable of comprehending natural language prompts and collaborating with human oversight. 


Large language model bootcamp


LLM agents leverage LLMs innate linguistic abilities to understand instructions, context, and goals, operate autonomously and semi-autonomously based on human prompts, and harness a suite of tools such as calculators, APIs, and search engines to complete assigned tasks, making logical connections to work towards conclusions and solutions to problems. Here are few of the services that are highly dominated by the use of Lang Chain agents:


Working of agents in LangChain: Exploring the dynamics | Data Science Dojo



Facilitating language services 

Agents play a critical role in delivering language services such as translation, interpretation, and linguistic analysis. Ultimately, this process steers the actions of the agent through the encoding of personas, instructions, and permissions within meticulously constructed prompts.

Users effectively steer the agent by offering interactive cues following the AI’s responses. Thoughtfully designed prompts facilitate a smooth collaboration between humans and AI. Their expertise ensures accurate and efficient communication across diverse languages. 



Quality assurance and validation 

Ensuring the accuracy and quality of language-related services is a core responsibility. Agents verify translations, validate linguistic data, and maintain high standards to meet user expectations. Agents can manage relatively self-contained workflows with human oversight.

Use internal validation to verify the accuracy and coherence of their generated content. Agents undergo rigorous testing against various datasets and scenarios. These tests validate the agent’s ability to comprehend queries, generate accurate responses, and handle diverse inputs. 


Types of agents 

Agents use an LLM to determine which actions to take and in what order. An action can either be using a tool and observing its output, or returning a response to the user. Here are the agents available in Lang Chain.  

Zero-Shot ReAct: This agent uses the ReAct framework to determine which tool to use based solely on the tool’s description. Any number of tools can be provided. This agent requires that a description is provided for each tool. Below is how we can set up this Agent: 


Working of agents in LangChain: Exploring the dynamics | Data Science Dojo


Let’s invoke this agent and check if it’s working in chain 

Working of agents in LangChain: Exploring the dynamics | Data Science Dojo



This will invoke the agent. 

Structured-Input ReAct: The structured tool chat agent is capable of using multi-input tools. Older agents are configured to specify an action input as a single string, but this agent can use a tool’s argument schema to create a structured action input. This is useful for more complex tool usage, like precisely navigating around a browser. Here is how one can setup the React agent:


Working of agents in LangChain: Exploring the dynamics | Data Science Dojo


The further necessary imports required are:

Working of agents in LangChain: Exploring the dynamics | Data Science Dojo



Setting up parameters:


Working of agents in LangChain: Exploring the dynamics | Data Science Dojo

Creating the agent:

Working of agents in LangChain: Exploring the dynamics | Data Science Dojo



Improving performance of an agent 

Enhancing the capabilities of agents in Large Language Models (LLMs) necessitates a multi-faceted approach. Firstly, it is essential to keep refining the art and science of prompt engineering, which is a key component in directing these systems securely and efficiently. As prompt engineering improves, so does the competencies of LLM agents, allowing them to venture into new spheres of AI assistance.

Secondly, integrating additional components can expand agents’ reasoning and expertise. These components include knowledge banks for updating domain-specific vocabularies, lookup tools for data gathering, and memory enhancement for retaining interactions.

Thus, increasing the autonomous capabilities of agents requires more than just improved prompts; they also need access to knowledge bases, memory, and reasoning tools.

Lastly, it is vital to maintain a clear iterative prompt cycle, which is key to facilitating natural conversations between users and LLM agents. Repeated cycling allows the LLM agent to converge on solutions, reveal deeper insights, and maintain topic focus within an ongoing conversation. 



The advent of large language model agents marks a turning point in the AI domain. With increasing advances in the field, these agents are strengthening their footing as autonomous, proactive entities capable of reasoning and executing tasks effectively.

The application and impact of Large Language Model agents are vast and game-changing, from conversational chatbots to workflow automation. The potential challenges or obstacles include ensuring the consistency and relevance of the information the agent processes, and the caution with which personal or sensitive data should be treated. The promising future outlook of these agents is the potentially increased level of automated and efficient interaction humans can have with AI. 

Data Science Dojo
Guest Author

As we delve into 2023, the realms of Data Science, Artificial Intelligence (AI), and Large Language Models (LLMs) continue to evolve at an unprecedented pace.

To keep up with these rapid developments, it’s crucial to stay informed through reliable and insightful sources. In this blog, we will explore the top 7 blogs of 2023 that have been instrumental in disseminating detailed and updated information in these dynamic fields.

These blogs stand out not just for their depth of content but also for their ability to make complex topics accessible to a broader audience. Whether you are a seasoned professional, an aspiring learner, or simply an enthusiast in the world of data science and AI, these blogs provide a treasure trove of knowledge, covering everything from fundamental concepts to the latest advancements in LLMs like GPT-4, BERT, and beyond.

Join us as we delve into each of these top blogs, uncovering how they help us stay at the forefront of learning and innovation in these ever-changing industries.


7 types of statistical distributions with practical examples

Statistical distributions help us understand a problem better by assigning a range of possible values to the variables, making them very useful in data science and machine learning. Here are 7 types of distributions with intuitive examples that often occur in real-life data.

This blog might discuss various statistical distributions (such as normal, binomial, and Poisson) and their applications in machine learning. It could explain how these distributions are used in different machine learning algorithms and why understanding them is crucial for data scientists.

Link to blog -> 7 types of statistical distributions


32 datasets to uplift your skills in data science

Data Science Dojo has created an archive of 32 data sets for you to use to practice and improve your skills as a data scientist.

The repository carries a diverse range of themes, difficulty levels, sizes, and attributes. The data sets are categorized according to varying difficulty levels to be suitable for everyone.

They offer the ability to challenge one’s knowledge and get hands-on practice to boost their skills in areas, including, but not limited to, exploratory data analysis, data visualization, data wrangling, machine learning, and everything essential to learning data science.

Link to blog -> Datasets to uplift skills 


How to tune LLM Parameters for optimal performance

Shape your model’s performance using LLM parameters. Imagine you have a super-smart computer program. You type something into it, like a question or a sentence, and you want it to guess what words should come next. This program doesn’t just guess randomly; it’s like a detective that looks at all the possibilities and says, “Hmm, these words are more likely to come next.”

It makes an extensive list of words and says, “Here are all the possible words that could come next, and here’s how likely each one is.” But here’s the catch: it only gives you one word, and that word depends on how you tell the program to make its guess. You set the rules, and the program follows them.


Link to blog -> Tune LLM parameters


Demystifying embeddings 101 – The foundation of large language models

Embeddings are a key building block of large language models. For the unversed, large language models (LLMs) are composed of several key building blocks that enable them to efficiently process and understand natural language data.

Embeddings are continuous vector representations of words or tokens that capture their semantic meanings in a high-dimensional space. They allow the model to convert discrete tokens into a format that can be processed by the neural network.

LLMs learn embeddings during training to capture relationships between words, like synonyms or analogies.


Link to blog -> Embeddings 


Fine-tuning LLMs 101

Fine-tuning LLMs, or Large Language Models, involves adjusting the model’s parameters to suit a specific task by training it on relevant data, making it a powerful technique to enhance model performance.

Pre-trained large language models (LLMs) offer many capabilities but aren’t universal. When faced with a task beyond their abilities, fine-tuning is an option. This process involves retraining LLMs on new data. While it can be complex and costly, it’s a potent tool for organizations using LLMs. Understanding fine-tuning, even if not doing it yourself, aids in informed decision-making.


Link to blog -> Fine-tune LLMs


Applications of Natural Language Processing

One of the essential things in the life of a human being is communication. We need to communicate with other human beings to deliver information, express our emotions, present ideas, and much more.
The key to communication is language. We need a common language to communicate that both ends of the conversation can understand. Doing this is possible for humans, but it might seem a bit difficult if we talk about communicating with a computer system or the computer system communicating with us. 

This blog will discuss the different natural language processing applications. We will see the applications and what problems they solve in our daily lives.


Top 7 Generative AI courses offered online

Generative AI is a rapidly growing field with applications in a wide range of industries, from healthcare to entertainment. Many great online courses are available if you’re interested in learning more about this exciting technology.

The groundbreaking advancements in Generative AI, particularly through OpenAI, have revolutionized various industries, compelling businesses and organizations to adapt to this transformative technology. Generative AI offers unparalleled capabilities to unlock valuable insights, automate processes, and generate personalized experiences that drive business growth.


Link to blog -> Generative AI courses


Read more about AI, data science, and large language model blog

In conclusion, the top 7 blogs of 2023 in the domains of Data Science, AI, and Large Language Models offer a panoramic view of the current landscape in these fields.

These blogs not only provide up-to-date information but also inspire innovation and continuous learning. They serve as essential resources for anyone looking to understand the intricacies of AI and LLMs or to stay abreast of the latest trends and breakthroughs in data science.

By offering a blend of in-depth analysis, expert insights, and practical applications, these blogs have become go-to sources for both professionals and enthusiasts. As the fields of data science and AI continue to expand and influence various aspects of our lives, staying informed through such high-quality content will be key to leveraging the full potential of these transformative technologies

Data Science Dojo
Ali Haider Shalwani
| November 18

GPT-3.5 and other large language models (LLMs) have transformed natural language processing (NLP). Trained on massive datasets, LLMs can generate text that is both coherent and relevant to the context, making them invaluable for a wide range of applications. 

Learning about LLMs is essential in today’s fast-changing technological landscape. These models are at the forefront of AI and NLP research, and understanding their capabilities and limitations can empower people in diverse fields. 

This blog lists steps and several tutorials that can help you get started with large language models. From understanding large language models to building your own ChatGPT, this roadmap covers it all. 

large language models pathway

Want to build your own ChatGPT? Checkout our in-person Large Language Model Bootcamp. 


Step 1: Understand the real-world applications 

Building a large language model application on custom data can help improve your business in a number of ways. This means that LLMs can be tailored to your specific needs. For example, you could train a custom LLM on your customer data to improve your customer service experience.  

The talk below will give an overview of different real-world applications of large language models and how these models can assist with different routine or business activities. 




Step 2: Introduction to fundamentals and architectures of LLM applications 

Applications like Bard, ChatGPT, Midjourney, and DallE have entered some applications like content generation and summarization. However, there are inherent challenges for a lot of tasks that require a deeper understanding of trade-offs like latency, accuracy, and consistency of responses.

Any serious applications of LLMs require an understanding of nuances in how LLMs work, including embeddings, vector databases, retrieval augmented generation (RAG), orchestration frameworks, and more. 

This talk will introduce you to the fundamentals of large language models and their emerging architectures. This video is perfect for anyone who wants to learn more about Large Language Models and how to use LLMs to build real-world applications. 




Step 3: Understanding vector similarity search 

Traditional keyword-based methods have limitations, leaving us searching for a better way to improve search. But what if we could use deep learning to revolutionize search?


Large language model bootcamp


Imagine representing data as vectors, where the distance between vectors reflects similarity, and using Vector Similarity Search algorithms to search billions of vectors in milliseconds. It’s the future of search, and it can transform text, multimedia, images, recommendations, and more.  

The challenge of searching today is indexing billions of entries, which makes it vital to learn about vector similarity search. This talk below will help you learn how to incorporate vector search and vector databases into your own applications to harness deep learning insights at scale.  



Step 4: Explore the power of embedding with vector search 

 The total amount of digital data generated worldwide is increasing at a rapid rate. Simultaneously, approximately 80% (and growing) of this newly generated data is unstructured data—data that does not conform to a table- or object-based model.

Examples of unstructured data include text, images, protein structures, geospatial information, and IoT data streams. Despite this, the vast majority of companies and organizations do not have a way of storing and analyzing these increasingly large quantities of unstructured data.  


Learn to build LLM applications


Embeddings—high-dimensional, dense vectors that represent the semantic content of unstructured data can remedy this issue. This makes it significant to learn about embeddings.  


The talk below will provide a high-level overview of embeddings, discuss best practices around embedding generation and usage, build two systems (semantic text search and reverse image search), and see how we can put our application into production using Milvus.  



Step 5: Discover the key challenges in building LLM applications 

As enterprises move beyond ChatGPT, Bard, and ‘demo applications’ of large language models, product leaders and engineers are running into challenges. The magical experience we observe on content generation and summarization tasks using ChatGPT is not replicated on custom LLM applications built on enterprise data. 

Enterprise LLM applications are easy to imagine and build a demo out of, but somewhat challenging to turn into a business application. The complexity of datasets, training costs, cost of token usage, response latency, context limit, fragility of prompts, and repeatability are some of the problems faced during product development. 

Delve deeper into these challenges with the below talk: 


Step 6: Building Your Own ChatGPT 


Learn how to build your own ChatGPT or a custom large language model using different AI platforms like Llama Index, LangChain, and more. Here are a few talks that can help you to get started:  

Build Agents Simply with OpenAI and LangChain 

Build Your Own ChatGPT with Redis and Langchain 

Build a Custom ChatGPT with Llama Index 


Step 7: Learn about Retrieval Augmented Generation (RAG)  

Learn the common design patterns for LLM applications, especially the Retrieval Augmented Generation (RAG) framework; What is RAG and how it works, how to use vector databases and knowledge graphs to enhance LLM performance, and how to prioritize and implement LLM applications in your business.  

The discussion below will not only inspire organizational leaders to reimagine their data strategies in the face of LLMs and generative AI but also empower technical architects and engineers with practical insights and methodologies. 



Step 8: Understanding AI observability  

AI observability is the ability to monitor and understand the behavior of AI systems. It is essential for responsible AI, as it helps to ensure that AI systems are safe, reliable, and aligned with human values.  

The talk below will discuss the importance of AI observability for responsible AI and offer fresh insights for technical architects, engineers, and organizational leaders seeking to leverage Large Language Model applications and generative AI through AI observability.  


Step 9: Prevent large language models hallucination  

It important to evaluate user interactions to monitor prompts and responses, configure acceptable limits to indicate things like malicious prompts, toxic responses, llm hallucinations, and jailbreak attempts, and set up monitors and alerts to help prevent undesirable behaviour. Tools like WhyLabs and Hugging Face play a vital role here.  

The talk below will use Hugging Face + LangKit to effectively monitor Machine Learning and LLMs like GPT from OpenAI. This session will equip you with the knowledge and skills to use LangKit with Hugging Face models. 




Step 10: Learn to fine-tune LLMs 

Fine-tuning GPT-3.5 Turbo allows you to customize the model to your specific use case, improving performance on specialized tasks, achieving top-tier performance, enhancing steerability, and ensuring consistent output formatting. It important to understand what fine-tuning is, why it’s important for GPT-3.5 Turbo, how to fine-tune GPT-3.5 Turbo for specific use cases, and some of the best practices for fine-tuning GPT-3.5 Turbo.  

Whether you’re a data scientist, machine learning engineer, or business user, this talk below will teach you everything you need to know about fine-tuning GPT-3.5 Turbo to achieve your goals and using a fine tuned GPT3.5 Turbo model to solve a real-world problem. 





Step 11: Become ChatGPT prompting expert 

Learn advanced ChatGPT prompting techniques essential to upgrading your prompt engineering experience. Use ChatGPT prompts in all formats, from freeform to structured, to get the most out of large language models. Explore the latest research on prompting and discover advanced techniques like chain-of-thought, tree-of-thought, and skeleton prompts. 

Explore scientific principles of research for data-driven prompt design and master prompt engineering to create effective prompts in all formats.




Step 12: Master LLMs for more 

Large Language Models assist with a number of tasks like analysing the data while creating engaging and informative data visualizations and narratives or to easily create and customize AI-powered PowerPoint presentations 

Start mastering LLMs for tasks that can ease up your business activities.  

To learn more about large language models, checkout this playlist; from tutorials to crash courses, it is your one-stop learning spot for LLMs and Generative AI.  

Fiza Author image
Fiza Fatima
| November 1

Large language models hold the promise of transforming multiple industries, but they come with a set of potential risks. These risks of large language models include subjectivity, bias, prompt vulnerabilities, and more.  

In this blog, we’ll explore these challenges and present best practices to mitigate them, covering the use of guardrails, defensive UX design, LLM caching, user feedback, and data selection for fair and equitable results. Join us as we navigate the landscape of responsible LLM deployment. 


Key challenges of large language models

First, let’s start with some key challenges of LLMs that are concerning.  

  • Subjectivity of Relevance for Human Beings: LLMs are trained on massive datasets of text and code, but these datasets may not reflect the subjective preferences of all human beings. This means that LLMs may generate content that is not relevant or useful to all users. 
  • Bias Arising from Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RHLF): LLMs are often trained using reinforcement learning from human feedback (RHLF). However, human feedback can be biased, either intentionally or unintentionally. This means that LLMs may learn biased policies, which can lead to the generation of biased content. 
  • Prompt Leaking: Prompt leaking occurs when an LLM reveals its internal prompt or instructions to the user. This can be exploited by attackers to gain access to sensitive information. 
  • Prompt Injection: Prompt injection occurs when an attacker is able to inject malicious code into an LLM’s prompt. This can cause the LLM to generate harmful content. 
  • Jailbreaks: A jailbreak is a successful attempt to trick an LLM into generating harmful or unexpected content. This can be done by providing the LLM with carefully crafted prompts or by exploiting vulnerabilities in the LLM’s code. 
  • Inference Costs: Inference cost is the cost of running a language model to generate text. It is driven by several factors, including the size, the complexity of the task, and the hardware used to run the model.  

Quick quiz

Test your knowledge of large language models

LLMs are typically very large and complex models, which means that they require a lot of computational resources to run. This can make inference costs quite high, especially for large and complex tasks. For example, the cost of running a single inference on GPT-3, a large LLM from OpenAI, is currently around $0.06. 

  • Hallucinations: There are several factors that can contribute to hallucinations in LLMs, including the limited contextual understanding of LLMs, noise in the training data, and the complexity of the task. Hallucinations can also be caused by pushing LLMs beyond their capabilities. Read more 

Other potential risks of LLMs include privacy violations and copyright infringement. These are serious problems that companies need to be vary of before implementing LLMs. Listen to this talk to understand how these challenges plague users as well as pose a significant threat to society.



Thankfully, there are several measures that can be taken to overcome these challenges.  


Best practices to mitigate these challenges 

Here are some best practices that can be followed to overcome the potential risks of LLMs. 


risks of large language models 


1. Using guardrails 

Guardrails are technical mechanisms that can be used to prevent large language models from generating harmful or unexpected content. For example, guardrails can be used to prevent LLMs from generating content that is biased, offensive, or inaccurate. 

Guardrails can be implemented in a variety of ways. For example, one common approach is to use blacklists and whitelists. Blacklists are lists of words and phrases that a language model is prohibited from generating. Whitelists are lists of words and phrases that the large language model is encouraged to generate. 

Another approach to guardrails is to use filters. Filters can be used to detect and remove harmful content from the model’s output. For example, a filter could be used to detect and remove hate speech from the LLM’s output. 


Large language model bootcamp



2. Defensive UX 

Defensive UX is a design approach that can be used to make it difficult for users to misuse LLMs. For example, defensive UX can be used to make it clear to users that LLMs are still under development and that their output should not be taken as definitive. 

One way to implement defensive UX is to use warnings and disclaimers. For example, a warning could be displayed to users before they interact with it, informing them of the limitations of large language models and the potential for bias and error. 

Another way to implement defensive UX is to provide users with feedback mechanisms. For example, a feedback mechanism could allow users to report harmful or biased content to the developers of the LLM. 


3. Using LLM caching 


LLM caching reduces the risk of prompt leakage by isolating user sessions and temporarily storing interactions within a session, enabling the model to maintain context and improve conversation flow without revealing specific user details.  


This improves efficiency, limits exposure to cached data, and reduces unintended prompt leakage. However, it’s crucial to exercise caution to protect sensitive information and ensure data privacy when using large language models. 


Learn to build custom large language model applications today!


4. User feedback 

User feedback can be used to identify and mitigate bias in LLMs. It can also be used to improve the relevance of LLM-generated content. 

One way to collect user feedback is to survey users after they have interacted with an LLM. The survey could ask users to rate the quality of the LLM’s output and identify any biases or errors. 

Another way to collect user feedback is to allow users to provide feedback directly to the developers of the LLM. This feedback could be provided via a feedback form or a support ticket. 


5. Using data that promotes fairness and equality 

It is of paramount importance for machine learning models, particularly Large Language Models, to be trained on data that is both credible and advocates fairness and equality.

Credible data ensures the accuracy and reliability of model-generated information, safeguarding against the spread of false or misleading content. 

To do so, training on data that upholds fairness and equality is essential to minimize biases within LLMs, preventing the generation of discriminatory or harmful outputs, promoting ethical responsibility, and adhering to legal and regulatory requirements.  


Overcome the risks of large language models

In conclusion, Large Language Models (LLMs) offer immense potential but come with inherent risks, including subjectivity, bias, prompt vulnerabilities, and more.  

This blog has explored these challenges and provided a set of best practices to mitigate them.

These practices encompass implementing guardrails to prevent harmful content, utilizing defensive user experience (UX) design to educate users and provide feedback mechanisms, employing LLM caching to enhance user privacy, collecting user feedback to identify and rectify bias, and, most crucially, training LLMs on data that champions fairness and equality.  

By following these best practices, we can navigate the landscape of responsible LLM deployment, promote ethical AI development, and reduce the societal impact of biased or unfair AI systems. 

Author image - Ayesha
Ayesha Saleem
| October 23

If you’re interested to learn large language models (LLMs), you’re in the right place. LLMs are all the rage these days, and for good reason. They’re incredibly powerful tools that can be used to do a wide range of things, from generating text to translating languages to writing code.

LLMs can be used to build a variety of applications, such as chatbots, virtual assistants, and translation tools. They can also be used to improve the performance of existing NLP tasks, such as text summarization and machine translation.

In this blog post, we are going to share the top 10 YouTube videos for learning about LLMs. These videos cover everything from the basics of how LLMs work to how to build and deploy your own LLM. Experts in the field teach these concepts, giving you the assurance of receiving the latest information.



1. LLM for real-world Applications



Custom LLMs are trained on your specific data. This means that they can be tailored to your specific needs. For example, you could train a custom LLM on your customer data to improve your customer service experience.

LLMs are a powerful tool that can be used to improve your business in a number of ways. If you’re not already using LLMs in your business, I encourage you to check out the video above to learn more about their potential applications.

In this video, you will learn about the following:

  • What are LLMs and how do they work?
  • What are the different types of LLMs?
  • What are some of the real-world applications of LLMs?
  • How can you get started with using LLMs in your own work?


2. Emerging Architectures for LLM Applications



In this video, you will learn about the latest approaches to building custom LLM applications. This means that you can build an LLM that is tailored to your specific needs. You will also learn about the different tools and technologies that are available, such as LangChain.

Applications like Bard, ChatGPT, Midjourney, and DallE have entered some applications like content generation and summarization. However, there are inherent challenges for a lot of tasks that require a deeper understanding of trade-offs like latency, accuracy, and consistency of responses.

Any serious applications of LLMs require an understanding of nuances in how LLMs work, embeddings, vector databases, retrieval augmented generation (RAG), orchestration frameworks, and more.

In this video, you will learn about the following:

  • What are the challenges of using LLMs in real-world applications?
  • What are some of the emerging architectures for LLM applications?
  • How can these architectures be used to overcome the challenges of using LLMs in real-world applications?



3. Vector Similarity Search



This video explains what vector databases are and how they can be used for vector similarity searches. Vector databases are a type of database that stores data in the form of vectors. Vectors are mathematical objects that represent the direction and magnitude of a force or quantity.

Large language model bootcamp

A vector similarity search is the process of finding similar vectors in a vector database. Vector similarity search can be used for a variety of tasks, such as image retrieval, text search, and recommendation systems.

In this video, you will learn about the following:

  • What are vector databases?
  • What is vector similarity search?
  • How can vector databases be used for vector similarity searches?
  • What are some of the benefits of using vector databases for vector similarity searches?


4. Agents in LangChain

This video explains what LangChain agents are and how they can be used to build AI applications. LangChain agents are a type of artificial intelligence that can be used to build AI applications. They are based on large language models (LLMs), which are a type of artificial intelligence that can generate and understand human language.

Link to video – Agents in LangChain

In this video, you will learn about the following:

  • What are LangChain agents?
  • How can LangChain agents be used to build AI applications?
  • What are some of the benefits of using LangChain agents to build AI applications?


5. Build your own ChatGPT

This video shows how to use the ChatGPT API to build your own AI application. ChatGPT is a large language model (LLM) that can be used to generate text, translate languages, and answer questions in an informative way.

Link to video: Build your own ChatGPT

In this video, you will learn about the following:

  • What is the ChatGPT API?
  • How can the ChatGPT API be used to build AI applications?
  • What are some of the benefits of using the ChatGPT API to build AI applications?


6. The Power of Embeddings with Vector Search

Embeddings are a powerful tool for representing data in an easy-to-understand way for machine learning algorithms. Vector search is a technique for finding similar vectors in a database. Together, embeddings and vector search can be used to solve a wide range of problems, such as image retrieval, text search, and recommendation systems.

Key learning outcomes:

  • What are embeddings and how do they work?
  • What is vector search and how is it used?
  • How can embeddings and vector search be used to solve real-world problems?


7. AI in Emergency Medicine

Artificial intelligence (AI) is rapidly transforming the field of emergency medicine. AI is being used to develop new diagnostic tools, improve the efficiency of care delivery, and even predict patient outcomes.

Key learning outcomes:

  • What are the latest advances in AI in emergency medicine?
  • How is AI being used to improve patient care?
  • What are the challenges and opportunities of using AI in emergency medicine?


8. Generative AI Trends, Ethics, and Societal Impact

Generative AI is a type of AI that can create new content, such as text, images, and music. Generative AI is rapidly evolving and has the potential to revolutionize many industries. However, it also raises important ethical and societal questions.

Key learning outcomes:

  • What are the latest trends in generative AI?
  • What are the potential benefits and risks of generative AI?
  • How can we ensure that generative AI is used responsibly and ethically?

9. Hugging Face + LangKit

Hugging Face and LangKit are two popular open-source libraries for natural language processing (NLP). Hugging Face provides a variety of pre-trained NLP models, while LangKit provides a set of tools for training and deploying NLP models.

Key learning outcomes:

  • What are Hugging Face and LangKit?
  • How can Hugging Face and LangKit be used to build NLP applications?
  • What are some of the benefits of using Hugging Face and LangKit?


10. Master ChatGPT for Data Analysis and Visualization!

ChatGPT is a large language model that can be used for a variety of tasks, including data analysis and visualization. In this video, you will learn how to use ChatGPT to perform common data analysis tasks, such as data cleaning, data exploration, and data visualization.


Key learning outcomes:

  • How to use ChatGPT to perform data analysis tasks
  • How to use ChatGPT to create data visualizations
  • How to use ChatGPT to communicate your data findings

Visit our YouTube channel to learn large language model

LLMs can help you build your own large language models, like ChatGPT. They can also help you use custom language models to grow your business. For example, you can use custom language models to improve customer service, develop new products and services, automate marketing and sales tasks, and improve the quality of your content.

Get Started with Generative AI                                    

So, what are you waiting for? Start learning about LLMs today!

Data Science Dojo Staff
| October 4

Unlocking the potential of large language models like GPT-4 reveals a Pandora’s box of privacy concerns. Unintended data leaks sound the alarm, demanding stricter privacy measures.


Generative Artificial Intelligence (AI) has garnered significant interest, with users considering its application in critical domains such as financial planning and medical advice. However, this excitement raises a crucial question:

Can we truly trust these large language models (LLMs) ?


Sanmi Koyejo and Bo Li, experts in computer science, delve into this question through their research, evaluating GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 models for trustworthiness across multiple perspectives.

Koyejo and Li’s study takes a comprehensive look at eight trust perspectives: toxicity, stereotype bias, adversarial robustness, out-of-distribution robustness, robustness on adversarial demonstrations, privacy, machine ethics, and fairness. While the newer models exhibit reduced toxicity on standard benchmarks, the researchers find that they can still be influenced to generate toxic and biased outputs, highlighting the need for caution in sensitive areas.

AI - Algorithmic biases

The illusion of perfection

Contrary to the common perception of LLMs as flawless and capable, the research underscores their vulnerabilities. These models, such as GPT-3.5 and GPT-4, though capable of extraordinary feats like natural conversations, fall short of the trust required for critical decision-making. Koyejo emphasizes the importance of recognizing these models as machine learning systems with inherent vulnerabilities, emphasizing that expectations need to align with the current reality of AI capabilities.

Unveiling the black box: Understanding the inner workings

A critical challenge in the realm of artificial intelligence is the enigmatic nature of model training, a conundrum that Koyejo and Li’s evaluation brought to light. They shed light on the lack of transparency in the training processes of AI models, particularly emphasizing the opacity surrounding popular models.

Many of these models are proprietary and concealed in a shroud of secrecy, leaving researchers and users grappling to comprehend their intricate inner workings. This lack of transparency poses a significant hurdle in understanding and analyzing these models comprehensively.

To tackle this issue, the study adopted the approach of a “Red Team,” mimicking a potential adversary. By stress-testing the models, the researchers aimed to unravel potential pitfalls and vulnerabilities. This proactive initiative provided invaluable insights into areas where these models could falter or be susceptible to malicious manipulation. It also underscored the necessity for greater transparency and openness in the development and deployment of AI models.


Large language model bootcamp

Toxicity and adversarial prompts

One of the key findings of the study pertained to the levels of toxicity exhibited by GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 under different prompts. When presented with benign prompts, these models showed a significant reduction in toxic outputs, indicating a degree of control and restraint. However, a startling revelation emerged when the models were subjected to adversarial prompts – their toxicity probability surged to an alarming 100%.

This dramatic escalation in toxicity under adversarial conditions raises a red flag regarding the model’s susceptibility to malicious manipulation. It underscores the critical need for vigilant monitoring and cautious utilization of AI models, particularly in contexts where toxic outputs could have severe real-world consequences.

Additionally, this finding highlights the importance of ongoing research to devise mechanisms that can effectively mitigate toxicity, making these AI systems safer and more reliable for users and society at large.

Bias and privacy concerns

Addressing bias in AI systems is an ongoing challenge, and despite efforts to reduce biases in GPT-4, the study uncovered persistent biases towards specific stereotypes. These biases can have significant implications in various applications where the model is deployed. The danger lies in perpetuating harmful societal prejudices and reinforcing discriminatory behaviors.

Furthermore, privacy concerns have emerged as a critical issue associated with GPT models. Both GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 have been shown to inadvertently leak sensitive training data, raising red flags about the privacy of individuals whose data is used to train these models. This leakage of information can encompass a wide range of private data, including but not limited to email addresses and potentially even more sensitive information like Social Security numbers.

The study’s revelations emphasize the pressing need for ongoing research and development to effectively mitigate biases and improve privacy measures in AI systems like GPT-4. Developers and researchers must work collaboratively to identify and rectify biases, ensuring that AI models are more inclusive and representative of diverse perspectives.

To enhance privacy, it is crucial to implement stricter controls on data usage and storage during the training and usage of these models. Stringent protocols should be established to safeguard against the inadvertent leaking of sensitive information. This involves not only technical solutions but also ethical considerations in the development and deployment of AI technologies.

Fairness in predictions

The assessment of GPT-4 revealed worrisome biases in the model’s predictions, particularly concerning gender and race. These biases highlight disparities in how the model perceives and interprets different attributes of individuals, potentially leading to unfair and discriminatory outcomes in applications that utilize these predictions.

In the context of gender and race, the biases uncovered in the model’s predictions can perpetuate harmful stereotypes and reinforce societal inequalities. For instance, if the model consistently predicts higher incomes for certain genders or races, it could inadvertently reinforce existing biases related to income disparities.


Read more about -> 10 innovative ways to monetize business using ChatGPT


The study underscores the importance of ongoing research and vigilance to ensure fairness in AI predictions. Fairness assessments should be an integral part of the development and evaluation of AI models, particularly when these models are deployed in critical decision-making processes. This includes a continuous evaluation of the model’s performance across various demographic groups to identify and rectify biases.

Moreover, it’s crucial to promote diversity and inclusivity within the teams developing these AI models. A diverse team can provide a range of perspectives and insights necessary to address biases effectively and create AI systems that are fair and equitable for all users.

Conclusion: Balancing potential with caution

Koyejo and Li acknowledge the progress seen in GPT-4 compared to GPT-3.5 but caution against unfounded trust. They emphasize the ease with which these models can generate problematic content and stress the need for vigilant, human oversight, especially in sensitive contexts. Ongoing research and third-party risk assessments will be crucial in guiding the responsible use of generative AI. Maintaining a healthy skepticism, even as the technology evolves, is paramount.


Learn to build LLM applications                                          


Author images - Faizan
Muhammad Faizan
| September 28

Challenges of Large Language Models: LLMs are AI giants reshaping human-computer interactions, displaying linguistic marvels. However, beneath their prowess, lie complex challenges, limitations, and ethical concerns.


In the realm of artificial intelligence, LLMs have risen as titans, reshaping human-computer interactions, and information processing. GPT-3 and its kin are linguistic marvels, wielding unmatched precision and fluency in understanding, generating, and manipulating human language.

LLM robot

Photo by Rock’n Roll Monkey on Unsplash 


Yet, behind their remarkable prowess, a labyrinth of challenges, limitations, and ethical complexities lurks. As we dive deeper into the world of LLMs, we encounter undeniable flaws, computational bottlenecks, and profound concerns. This journey unravels the intricate tapestry of LLMs, illuminating the shadows they cast on our digital landscape. 


Cracks in the Facade: Flaws of Large Language Models | Data Science Dojo

Neural wonders: How LLMs master language at scale 

At their core, LLMs are intricate neural networks engineered to comprehend and craft human language on an extraordinary scale. These colossal models ingest vast and diverse datasets, spanning literature, news, and social media dialogues from the internet.

Their primary mission? Predicting the next word or token in a sentence based on the preceding context. Through this predictive prowess, they acquire grammar, syntax, and semantic acumen, enabling them to generate coherent, contextually fitting text. This training hinges on countless neural network parameter adjustments, fine-tuning their knack for spotting patterns and associations within the data.

Challenges of large language models

Consequently, when prompted with text, these models draw upon their immense knowledge to produce human-like responses, serving diverse applications from language understanding to content creation. Yet, such incredible power also raises valid concerns deserving closer scrutiny. If you want to dive deeper into the architecture of LLMs, you can read more here. 


Ethical concerns surrounding large language models: 

Large Language Models (LLMs) like GPT-3 have raised numerous ethical and social implications that need careful consideration.

These transformative AI systems, while undeniably powerful, have cast a spotlight on a spectrum of concerns that extend beyond their technical capabilities. Here are some of the key concerns:  

1. Bias and fairness:

LLMs are often trained on large datasets that may contain biases present in the text. This can lead to models generating biased or unfair content. Addressing and mitigating bias in LLMs is a critical concern, especially when these models are used in applications that impact people’s lives, such as in hiring processes or legal contexts.

In 2016, Microsoft launched a chatbot called Tay on Twitter. Tay was designed to learn from its interactions with users and become more human-like over time. However, within hours of being launched, Tay was flooded with racist and sexist language. As a result, Tay began to repeat this language, and Microsoft was forced to take it offline. 


Read more –> Algorithmic biases – Is it a challenge to achieve fairness in AI?


2. Misinformation and disinformation:

LLMs can generate highly convincing fake news, disinformation, and propaganda. One of the gravest concerns surrounding the deployment of Large Language Models (LLMs) lies in their capacity to produce exceptionally persuasive counterfeit news articles, disinformation, and propaganda.

These AI systems possess the capability to fabricate text that closely mirrors the style, tone, and formatting of legitimate news reports, official statements, or credible sources. This issue was brought forward in this research. 

3. Dependency and deskilling:

Excessive reliance on Large Language Models (LLMs) for various tasks presents multifaceted concerns, including the erosion of critical human skills. Overdependence on AI-generated content may diminish individuals’ capacity to perform tasks independently and reduce their adaptability in the face of new challenges.

In scenarios where LLMs are employed as decision-making aids, there’s a risk that individuals may become overly dependent on AI recommendations. This can impair their problem-solving abilities, as they may opt for AI-generated solutions without fully understanding the underlying rationale or engaging in critical analysis.

4. Privacy and security threats:

Large Language Models (LLMs) pose significant privacy and security threats due to their capacity to inadvertently leak sensitive information, profile individuals, and re-identify anonymized data. They can be exploited for data manipulation, social engineering, and impersonation, leading to privacy breaches, cyberattacks, and the spread of false information.

LLMs enable the generation of malicious content, automation of cyberattacks, and obfuscation of malicious code, elevating cybersecurity risks. Addressing these threats requires a combination of data protection measures, cybersecurity protocols, user education, and responsible AI development practices to ensure the responsible and secure use of LLMs. 

5. Lack of accountability:

The lack of accountability in the context of Large Language Models (LLMs) arises from the inherent challenge of determining responsibility for the content they generate. This issue carries significant implications, particularly within legal and ethical domains.

When AI-generated content is involved in legal disputes, it becomes difficult to assign liability or establish an accountable party, which can complicate legal proceedings and hinder the pursuit of justice. Moreover, in ethical contexts, the absence of clear accountability mechanisms raises concerns about the responsible use of AI, potentially enabling malicious or unethical actions without clear repercussions.

Thus, addressing this accountability gap is essential to ensure transparency, fairness, and ethical standards in the development and deployment of LLMs. 

6. Filter bubbles and echo chambers:

Large Language Models (LLMs) contribute to filter bubbles and echo chambers by generating content that aligns with users’ existing beliefs, limiting exposure to diverse viewpoints. This can hinder healthy public discourse by isolating individuals within their preferred information bubbles and reducing engagement with opposing perspectives, posing challenges to shared understanding and constructive debate in society. 

Large language model bootcamp

Navigating the solutions: Mitigating flaws in large language models 

As we delve deeper into the world of AI and language technology, it’s crucial to confront the challenges posed by Large Language Models (LLMs). In this section, we’ll explore innovative solutions and practical approaches to address the flaws we discussed. Our goal is to harness the potential of LLMs while safeguarding against their negative impacts. Let’s dive into these solutions for responsible and impactful use. 

1. Bias and Fairness:

Establish comprehensive and ongoing bias audits of LLMs during development. This involves reviewing training data for biases, diversifying training datasets, and implementing algorithms that reduce biased outputs. Include diverse perspectives in AI ethics and development teams and promote transparency in the fine-tuning process.

Guardrails AI can enforce policies designed to mitigate bias in LLMs by establishing predefined fairness thresholds. For example, it can restrict the model from generating content that includes discriminatory language or perpetuates stereotypes. It can also encourage the use of inclusive and neutral language.

Guardrails serve as a proactive layer of oversight and control, enabling real-time intervention and promoting responsible, unbiased behavior in LLMs. You can read more about Guardrails for AI in this article by Forbes.  


Read more –> LLM Use-Cases: Top 10 industries that can benefit from using large language models


AI guardrail system

The architecture of an AI-based guardrail system

2.  Misinformation and disinformation:

Develop and promote robust fact-checking tools and platforms to counter misinformation. Encourage responsible content generation practices by users and platforms. Collaborate with organizations that specialize in identifying and addressing misinformation.

Enhance media literacy and critical thinking education to help individuals identify and evaluate credible sources. Additionally, Guardrails can combat misinformation in Large Language Models (LLMs) by implementing real-time fact-checking algorithms that flag potentially false or misleading information, restricting the dissemination of such content without additional verification.

These guardrails work in tandem with the LLM, allowing for the immediate detection and prevention of misinformation, thereby enhancing the model’s trustworthiness and reliability in generating accurate information. 

3. Dependency and deskilling:

Promote human-AI collaboration as an augmentation strategy rather than a replacement. Invest in lifelong learning and reskilling programs that empower individuals to adapt to AI advances. Foster a culture of responsible AI use by emphasizing the role of AI as a tool to enhance human capabilities, not replace them. 

4. Privacy and security threats:

Strengthen data anonymization techniques to protect sensitive information. Implement robust cybersecurity measures to safeguard against AI-generated threats. Developing and adhering to ethical AI development standards to ensure privacy and security are paramount considerations.

Moreover, Guardrails can enhance privacy and security in Large Language Models (LLMs) by enforcing strict data anonymization techniques during model operation, implementing robust cybersecurity measures to safeguard against AI-generated threats, and educating users on recognizing and handling AI-generated content that may pose security risks.

These guardrails provide continuous monitoring and protection, ensuring that LLMs prioritize data privacy and security in their interactions, contributing to a safer and more secure AI ecosystem. 

5. Lack of accountability:

Establish clear legal frameworks for AI accountability, addressing issues of responsibility and liability. Develop digital signatures and metadata for AI-generated content to trace sources.

Promote transparency in AI development by documenting processes and decisions. Encourage industry-wide standards for accountability in AI use. Guardrails can address the lack of accountability in Large Language Models (LLMs) by enforcing transparency through audit trails that record model decisions and actions, thereby holding AI accountable for its outputs. 

6. Filter bubbles and echo chambers:

Promote diverse content recommendation algorithms that expose users to a variety of perspectives. Encourage cross-platform information sharing to break down echo chambers. Invest in educational initiatives that expose individuals to diverse viewpoints and promote critical thinking to combat the spread of filter bubbles and echo chambers. 

In a nutshell 

The path forward requires vigilance, collaboration, and an unwavering commitment to harness the power of LLMs while mitigating their pitfalls.

By championing fairness, transparency, and responsible AI use, we can unlock a future where these linguistic giants elevate society, enabling us to navigate the evolving digital landscape with wisdom and foresight. The use of Guardrails for AI is paramount in AI applications, safeguarding against misuse and unintended consequences.

The journey continues, and it’s one we embark upon with the collective goal of shaping a better, more equitable, and ethically sound AI-powered world. 


Register today

Ruhma Khawaja author
Ruhma Khawaja
| September 12

Sentiment analysis, a dynamic process, extracts opinions, emotions, and attitudes from text. Its versatility spans numerous realms, but one shining application is marketing.

Here, sentiment analysis becomes the compass guiding marketing campaigns. By deciphering customer responses, it measures campaign effectiveness.

The insights gleaned from this process become invaluable ammunition for campaign enhancement, enabling precise targeting and ultimately yielding superior results.

In this digital age, where every word matters, sentiment analysis stands as a cornerstone in understanding and harnessing the power of language for strategic marketing success. It’s the art of turning words into results, and it’s transforming the marketing landscape.

Supercharging Marketing with Sentiment Analysis and LLMs
Supercharging Marketing with Sentiment Analysis and LLMs

Under the lens: How does sentiment analysis work?

Sentiment analysis typically works by first identifying the sentiment of individual words or phrases. This can be done using a variety of methods, such as lexicon-based analysis, machine learning, or natural language processing.

Once the sentiment of individual words or phrases has been identified, they can be combined to determine the overall feeling of a piece of text. This can be done using a variety of techniques, such as sentiment scoring or sentiment classification.

Large language model bootcamp

 Sentiment analysis and marketing campaigns

In the ever-evolving landscape of marketing, understanding how your audience perceives your campaigns is essential for success. Sentiment analysis, a powerful tool in the realm of data analytics, enables you to gauge public sentiment surrounding your brand and marketing efforts.

Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to effectively use sentiment analysis to track the effectiveness of your marketing campaigns:

1. Identify your data sources

Begin by identifying the sources from which you’ll gather data for sentiment analysis. These sources may include:

  • Social Media: Monitor platforms like Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and LinkedIn for mentions, comments, and shares related to your campaigns.
  • Online Reviews: Scrutinize reviews on websites such as Yelp, Amazon, or specialized industry review sites.
  • Customer Surveys: Conduct surveys to directly gather feedback from your audience.
  • Customer Support Tickets: Review tickets submitted by customers to gauge their sentiments about your products or services.

2. Choose a sentiment analysis tool or service

Selecting the right sentiment analysis tool is crucial. There are various options available, each with its own set of features. Consider factors like accuracy, scalability, and integration capabilities. Some popular tools and services include:

  • IBM Watson Natural Language Understanding
  • Google Cloud Natural Language API
  • Microsoft Azure Text Analytics
  • Open-source libraries like NLTK and spaCy
Sentiment analysis and marketing campaigns
Sentiment analysis and marketing campaigns – Data Science Dojo


Read more –> LLM Use-Cases: Top 10 industries that can benefit from using large language models


3. Clean and prepare your data

Before feeding data into your chosen tool, ensure it’s clean and well-prepared. This involves:

  • Removing irrelevant or duplicate data to avoid skewing results.
  • Correcting errors such as misspelled words or incomplete sentences.
  • Standardizing text formats for consistency.


4. Train the sentiment analysis tool

To improve accuracy, train your chosen sentiment analysis tool on your specific data. This involves providing labeled examples of text as either positive, negative, or neutral sentiment. The tool will learn from these examples and become better at identifying sentiment in your context.


5. Analyze the Results

Once your tool is trained, it’s time to analyze the sentiment of the data you’ve collected. The results can provide valuable insights, including:

  • Overall Sentiment Trends: Determine whether the sentiment is predominantly positive, negative, or neutral.
  • Campaign-Specific Insights: Break down sentiment by individual marketing campaigns to see which ones resonate most with your audience.
  • Identify Key Topics: Discover what aspects of your products, services, or campaigns are driving sentiment.


6. Act on insights

The true value of sentiment analysis lies in its ability to guide your marketing strategies. Use the insights gained to:

  • Adjust campaign messaging to align with positive sentiment trends.
  • Address issues highlighted by negative sentiment.
  • Identify opportunities for improvement based on neutral sentiment feedback.
  • Continuously refine your marketing campaigns to better meet customer expectations.


Large Language Models and Marketing Campaigns



Use case


Create personalized content Use an LLM to generate personalized content for each individual customer, such as email newsletters, social media posts, or product recommendations.
Generate ad copy Use an LLM to generate ad copy that is more likely to resonate with customers by understanding their intent and what they are looking for.
Improve customer service Use an LLM to provide more personalized and informative responses to customer inquiries, such as by understanding their question and providing them with the most relevant information.
Optimize marketing campaigns Use an LLM to optimize marketing campaigns by understanding how customers are interacting with them, such as by tracking customer clicks, views, and engagement.

Benefits of using sentiment analysis to track campaigns

There are many benefits to using sentiment analysis to track marketing campaigns. Here are a few of the most important benefits:

  • Improved decision-making: Sentiment analysis can help marketers make better decisions about their marketing campaigns. By understanding how customers are responding to their campaigns, marketers can make more informed decisions about how to allocate their resources.
  • Increased ROI: Sentiment analysis can help marketers increase the ROI of their marketing campaigns. By targeting campaigns more effectively and optimizing ad campaigns, marketers can get better results from their marketing spend.
  • Improved customer experience: Sentiment analysis can help marketers improve the customer experience. By identifying areas where customer satisfaction can be improved, marketers can make changes to their products, services, and marketing campaigns to create a better experience for their customers.

Real-life scenarios: LLM & marketing campaigns

LLMs have several advantages over traditional sentiment analysis methods. They are more accurate, can handle more complex language, and can be trained on a wider variety of data. This makes them well-suited for use in marketing, where the goal is to understand the nuances of customer sentiment.

One example of how LLMs are being used in marketing is by Twitter. Twitter uses LLMs to analyze tweets about its platform and its users. This information is then used to improve the platform’s features and to target ads more effectively.

Another examp