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large language model

Welcome to the world of open-source (LLMs) large language models, where the future of technology meets community spirit. By breaking down the barriers of proprietary systems, open language models invite developers, researchers, and enthusiasts from around the globe to contribute to, modify, and improve upon the foundational models.

This collaborative spirit not only accelerates advancements in the field but also ensures that the benefits of AI technology are accessible to a broader audience. As we navigate through the intricacies of open-source language models, we’ll uncover the challenges and opportunities that come with adopting an open-source model, the ecosystems that support these endeavors, and the real-world applications that are transforming industries.

Benefits of open-source LLMs

As soon as ChatGPT was revealed, OpenAI’s GPT models quickly rose to prominence. However, businesses began to recognize the high costs associated with closed-source models, questioning the value of investing in large models that lacked specific knowledge about their operations.

In response, many opted for smaller open LLMs, utilizing Retriever-And-Generator (RAG) pipelines to integrate their data, achieving comparable or even superior efficiency.

There are several advantages to closed-source large language models worth considering.

Benefits of Open-Source large language models LLMs

  1. Cost-effectiveness:

Open-source Large Language Models (LLMs) present a cost-effective alternative to their proprietary counterparts, offering organizations a financially viable means to harness AI capabilities.

  • No licensing fees are required, significantly lowering initial and ongoing expenses.
  • Organizations can freely deploy these models, leading to direct cost reductions.
  • Open large language models allow for specific customization, enhancing efficiency without the need for vendor-specific customization services.
  1. Flexibility:

Companies are increasingly preferring the flexibility to switch between open and proprietary (closed) models to mitigate risks associated with relying solely on one type of model.

This flexibility is crucial because a model provider’s unexpected update or failure to keep the model current can negatively affect a company’s operations and customer experience.

Companies often lean towards open language models when they want more control over their data and the ability to fine-tune models for specific tasks using their data, making the model more effective for their unique needs.

  1. Data ownership and control:

Companies leveraging open-source language models gain significant control and ownership over their data, enhancing security and compliance through various mechanisms. Here’s a concise overview of the benefits and controls offered by using open large language models:

Data hosting control:

  • Choice of data hosting on-premises or with trusted cloud providers.
  • Crucial for protecting sensitive data and ensuring regulatory compliance.

Internal data processing:

  • Avoids sending sensitive data to external servers.
  • Reduces the risk of data breaches and enhances privacy.

Customizable data security features:

  • Flexibility to implement data anonymization and encryption.
  • Helps comply with data protection laws like GDPR and CCPA.

Transparency and audibility:

  • The open-source nature allows for code and process audits.
  • Ensures alignment with internal and external compliance standards.

Examples of enterprises leveraging open-source LLMs

Here are examples of how different companies around the globe have started leveraging open language models.

enterprises leveraging open-source LLMs in 2024

  1. VMWare

VMWare, a noted enterprise in the field of cloud computing and digitalization, has deployed an open language model called the HuggingFace StarCoder. Their motivation for using this model is to enhance the productivity of their developers by assisting them in generating code.

This strategic move suggests VMware’s priority for internal code security and the desire to host the model on their infrastructure. It contrasts with using an external system like Microsoft-owned GitHub’s Copilot, possibly due to sensitivities around their codebase and not wanting to give Microsoft access to it

  1. Brave

Brave, the security-focused web browser company, has deployed an open-source large language model called Mixtral 8x7B from Mistral AI for their conversational assistant named Leo, which aims to differentiate the company by emphasizing privacy.

Previously, Leo utilized the Llama 2 model, but Brave has since updated the assistant to default to the Mixtral 8x7B model. This move illustrates the company’s commitment to integrating open LLM technologies to maintain user privacy and enhance their browser’s functionality.

  1. Gab Wireless

Gab Wireless, the company focused on child-friendly mobile phone services, is using a suite of open-source models from Hugging Face to add a security layer to its messaging system. The aim is to screen the messages sent and received by children to ensure that no inappropriate content is involved in their communications. This usage of open language models helps Gab Wireless ensure safety and security in children’s interactions, particularly with individuals they do not know.

  1. IBM

IBM actively incorporates open models across various operational areas.

  • AskHR application: Utilizes IBM’s Watson Orchestration and open language models for efficient HR query resolution.
  • Consulting advantage tool: Features a “Library of Assistants” powered by IBM’s wasonx platform and open-source large language models, aiding consultants.
  • Marketing initiatives: Employs an LLM-driven application, integrated with Adobe Firefly, for innovative content and image generation in marketing.
  1. Intuit

Intuit, the company behind TurboTax, QuickBooks, and Mailchimp, has developed its language models incorporating open LLMs into the mix. These models are key components of Intuit Assist, a feature designed to help users with customer support, analysis, and completing various tasks. The company’s approach to building these large language models involves using open-source frameworks, augmented with Intuit’s unique, proprietary data.

  1. Shopify

Shopify has employed publically available language models in the form of Shopify Sidekick, an AI-powered tool that utilizes Llama 2. This tool assists small business owners with automating tasks related to managing their commerce websites. It can generate product descriptions, respond to customer inquiries, and create marketing content, thereby helping merchants save time and streamline their operations.

  1. LyRise

LyRise, a U.S.-based talent-matching startup, utilizes open language models by employing a chatbot built on Llama, which operates similarly to a human recruiter. This chatbot assists businesses in finding and hiring top AI and data talent, drawing from a pool of high-quality profiles in Africa across various industries.

  1. Niantic

Niantic, known for creating Pokémon Go, has integrated open-source large language models into its game through the new feature called Peridot. This feature uses Llama 2 to generate environment-specific reactions and animations for the pet characters, enhancing the gaming experience by making character interactions more dynamic and context-aware.

  1. Perplexity

Here’s how Perplexity leverages open-source LLMs

  • Response generation process:

When a user poses a question, Perplexity’s engine executes approximately six steps to craft a response. This process involves the use of multiple language models, showcasing the company’s commitment to delivering comprehensive and accurate answers.

In a crucial phase of response preparation, specifically the second-to-last step, Perplexity employs its own specially developed open-source language models. These models, which are enhancements of existing frameworks like Mistral and Llama, are tailored to succinctly summarize content relevant to the user’s inquiry.

The fine-tuning of these models is conducted on AWS Bedrock, emphasizing the choice of open models for greater customization and control. This strategy underlines Perplexity’s dedication to refining its technology to produce superior outcomes.

  • Partnership and API integration:

Expanding its technological reach, Perplexity has entered into a partnership with Rabbit to incorporate its open-source large language models into the R1, a compact AI device. This collaboration facilitated through an API, extends the application of Perplexity’s innovative models, marking a significant stride in practical AI deployment.

  1. CyberAgent

CyberAgent, a Japanese digital advertising firm, leverages open language models with its OpenCALM initiative, a customizable Japanese language model enhancing its AI-driven advertising services like Kiwami Prediction AI. By adopting an open-source approach, CyberAgent aims to encourage collaborative AI development and gain external insights, fostering AI advancements in Japan. Furthermore, a partnership with Dell Technologies has upgraded their server and GPU capabilities, significantly boosting model performance (up to 5.14 times faster), thereby streamlining service updates and enhancements for greater efficiency and cost-effectiveness.

Challenges of open-source LLMs

While open LLMs offer numerous benefits, there are substantial challenges that can plague the users.

  1. Customization necessity:

Open language models often come as general-purpose models, necessitating significant customization to align with an enterprise’s unique workflows and operational processes. This customization is crucial for the models to deliver value, requiring enterprises to invest in development resources to adapt these models to their specific needs.

  1. Support and governance:

Unlike proprietary models that offer dedicated support and clear governance structures, publically available large language models present challenges in managing support and ensuring proper governance. Enterprises must navigate these challenges by either developing internal expertise or engaging with the open-source community for support, which can vary in responsiveness and expertise.

  1. Reliability of techniques:

Techniques like Retrieval-Augmented Generation aim to enhance language models by incorporating proprietary data. However, these techniques are not foolproof and can sometimes introduce inaccuracies or inconsistencies, posing challenges in ensuring the reliability of the model outputs.

  1. Language support:

While proprietary models like GPT are known for their robust performance across various languages, open-source large language models may exhibit variable performance levels. This inconsistency can affect enterprises aiming to deploy language models in multilingual environments, necessitating additional effort to ensure adequate language support.

  1. Deployment complexity:

Deploying publically available language models, especially at scale, involves complex technical challenges. These range from infrastructure considerations to optimizing model performance, requiring significant technical expertise and resources to overcome.

  1. Uncertainty and risk:

Relying solely on one type of model, whether open or closed source, introduces risks such as the potential for unexpected updates by the provider that could affect model behavior or compliance with regulatory standards.

  1. Legal and ethical considerations:

Deploying LLMs entails navigating legal and ethical considerations, from ensuring compliance with data protection regulations to addressing the potential impact of AI on customer experiences. Enterprises must consider these factors to avoid legal repercussions and maintain trust with their users.

  1. Lack of public examples:

The scarcity of publicly available case studies on the deployment of publically available LLMs in enterprise settings makes it challenging for organizations to gauge the effectiveness and potential return on investment of these models in similar contexts.

Overall, while there are significant potential benefits to using publically available language models in enterprise settings, including cost savings and the flexibility to fine-tune models, addressing these challenges is critical for successful deployment

Embracing open-source LLMs: A path to innovation and flexibility

In conclusion, open-source language models represent a pivotal shift towards more accessible, customizable, and cost-effective AI solutions for enterprises. They offer a unique blend of benefits, including significant cost savings, enhanced data control, and the ability to tailor AI tools to specific business needs, while also presenting challenges such as the need for customization and navigating support complexities.

Through the collaborative efforts of the global open-source community and the innovative use of these models across various industries, enterprises are finding new ways to leverage AI for growth and efficiency.

However, success in this endeavor requires a strategic approach to overcome inherent challenges, ensuring that businesses can fully harness the potential of publically available LLMs to drive innovation and maintain a competitive edge in the fast-evolving digital landscape.

February 29, 2024

In today’s world of AI, we’re seeing a big push from both new and established tech companies to build the most powerful language models. Startups like OpenAI and big tech like Google are all part of this competition.

They are creating huge models, like OpenAI’s GPT-4, which has an impressive 1.76 trillion parameters, and Google’s Gemini, which also has a ton of parameters.

But the question arises, is it optimal to always increase the size of the model to make it function well? In other words, is scaling the model always the most helpful choice given how expensive it is to train the model on such huge amounts of data?

Well, this question isn’t as simple as it sounds because making a model better doesn’t just come down to adding more training data.

There have been different studies that show that increasing the size of the model leads to different challenges altogether. In this blog, we’ll be mainly focusing on the inverse scaling.

The Allure of Big Models

Perception of large models equating to better models

The general perception that larger models equate to better performance stems from observed trends in AI and machine learning. As language models increase in size – through more extensive training data, advanced algorithms, and greater computational power – they often demonstrate enhanced capabilities in understanding and generating human language.

This improvement is typically seen in their ability to grasp nuanced context, generate more coherent and contextually appropriate responses, and perform a wider array of complex language tasks.

Consequently, the AI field has often operated under the assumption that scaling up model size is a straightforward path to improved performance. This belief has driven much of the development and investment in ever-larger language models.

However, there are several theories that challenge this notion. Let us explore the concept of inverse scaling and different scenarios where inverse scaling is in action.

Inverse Scaling in Language Models

Inverse scaling is a phenomenon observed in language models. It is a situation where the performance of a model improves with the increase in the scale of data and model size, but beyond a certain point, further scaling leads to a decrease in performance.

Several reasons fuel the inverse scaling process including:

  1. Strong Prior

Strong Prior is a key reason for inverse scaling in larger language models. It refers to the tendency of these models to heavily rely on patterns and information they have learned during training.

This can lead to issues such as the Memo Trap, where the model prefers repeating memorized sequences rather than following new instructions.

A strong prior in large language models makes them more susceptible to being tricked due to their over-reliance on patterns learned during training. This reliance can lead to predictable responses, making it easier for users to manipulate the model to generate specific or even inappropriate outputs.

For instance, the model might be more prone to following familiar patterns or repeating memorized sequences, even when these responses are not relevant or appropriate to the given task or context. This can result in the model deviating from its intended function, demonstrating a vulnerability in its ability to adapt to new and varied inputs.

  1. Memo Trap

Inverse scaling: Explore things that can go wrong when you increase the size of your language models | Data Science Dojo
Source: Inverse Scaling: When Bigger Isn’t Better


Example of Memo Trap


Inverse Scaling: When Bigger Isn't Better
Source: Inverse Scaling: When Bigger Isn’t Better

This task examines if larger language models are more prone to “memorization traps,” where relying on memorized text hinders performance on specific tasks.

Larger models, being more proficient at modeling their training data, might default to producing familiar word sequences or revisiting common concepts, even when prompted otherwise.

This issue is significant as it highlights how strong memorization can lead to failures in basic reasoning and instruction-following. A notable example is when a model, despite being asked to generate positive content, ends up reproducing harmful or biased material due to its reliance on memorization. This demonstrates a practical downside where larger LMs might unintentionally perpetuate undesirable behavior.

  1. Unwanted Imitation

“Unwanted Imitation” in larger language models refers to the models’ tendency to replicate undesirable patterns or biases present in their training data.

As these models are trained on vast and diverse datasets, they often inadvertently learn and reproduce negative or inappropriate behaviors and biases found in the data.

This replication can manifest in various ways, such as perpetuating stereotypes, generating biased or insensitive responses, or reinforcing incorrect information.

The larger the model, the more data it has been exposed to, potentially amplifying this issue. This makes it increasingly challenging to ensure that the model’s outputs remain unbiased and appropriate, particularly in complex or sensitive contexts.

  1. Distractor Task

The concept of “Distractor Task” refers to a situation where the model opts for an easier subtask that appears related but does not directly address the main objective.

In such cases, the model might produce outputs that seem relevant but are actually off-topic or incorrect for the given task.

This tendency can be a significant issue in larger models, as their extensive training might make them more prone to finding and following these simpler paths or patterns, leading to outputs that are misaligned with the user’s actual request or intention. Here’s an example:

Inverse Scaling: When Bigger Isn't Better
Source: Inverse Scaling: When Bigger Isn’t Better

The correct answer should be ‘pigeon’ because a beagle is indeed a type of dog.

This mistake happens because, even though these larger programs can understand the question format, they fail to grasp the ‘not’ part of the question. So, they’re getting distracted by the easier task of associating ‘beagle’ with ‘dog’ and missing the actual point of the question, which is to identify what a beagle is not.

4. Spurious Few-Shot:

Inverse Scaling in language models
Source: Inverse Scaling: When Bigger Isn’t Better

In few-shot learning, a model is given a small number of examples (shots) to learn from and generalize its understanding to new, unseen data. The idea is to teach the model to perform a task with as little prior information as possible.

However, “Spurious Few-Shot” occurs when the few examples provided to the model are misleading in some way, leading the model to form incorrect generalizations or outputs. These examples might be atypical, biased, or just not representative enough of the broader task or dataset. As a result, the model learns the wrong patterns or rules from these examples, causing it to perform poorly or inaccurately when applied to other data.

In this task, the few-shot examples are designed with a correct answer but include a misleading pattern: the sign of the outcome of a bet always matches the sign of the expected value of the bet. This pattern, however, does not apply across all possible examples within the broader task set

Beyond size: future of intelligent learning models

Diving into machine learning, we’ve seen that bigger isn’t always better with something called inverse scaling. Think about it like this: even with super smart computer programs, doing tasks like spotting distractions, remembering quotes wrong on purpose, or copying bad habits can really trip them up. This shows us that even the fanciest programs have their limits and it’s not just about making them bigger. It’s about finding the right mix of size, smarts, and the ability to adapt.

February 1, 2024

Large Language Models (LLMs) like GPT-3 and BERT have revolutionized the field of natural language processing. However, large language models evaluation is as crucial as their development. This blog delves into the methods used to assess LLMs, ensuring they perform effectively and ethically.


How Do You Evaluate Large Language Model Apps — When 99% is just not good enough? | by Skanda Vivek | EMAlpha | Medium
     Source: EmAlpha



Evaluation metrics and methods

  1. Perplexity: Perplexity measures how well a model predicts a text sample. A lower perplexity indicates better performance, as the model is less ‘perplexed’ by the data.
  2. Accuracy, safety, and fairness: Beyond mere performance, assessing an LLM involves evaluating its accuracy in understanding and generating language, safety in avoiding harmful outputs, and fairness in treating all groups equitably.
  3. Embedding-based methods: Methods like BERTScore use embeddings (vector representations of text) to evaluate semantic similarity between the model’s output and reference texts.
  4. Human evaluation panels: Panels of human evaluators can judge the model’s output for aspects like coherence, relevance, and fluency, offering insights that automated metrics might miss.
  5. Benchmarks like MMLU and HellaSwag: These benchmarks test an LLM’s ability to handle complex language tasks and scenarios, gauging its generalizability and robustness.
  6. Holistic evaluation: Frameworks like the Holistic Evaluation of Language Models (HELM) assess models across multiple metrics, including accuracy and calibration, to provide a comprehensive view of their capabilities.
  7. Bias detection and interpretability methods: These methods evaluate how biased a model’s outputs are and how interpretable its decision-making process is, addressing ethical considerations.



Learn to build custom large language model applications today!                                                


How large language models evaluation work

Evaluations of large language models (LLMs) are crucial for assessing their performance, accuracy, and alignment with desired outcomes. The evaluation process involves several key methods:

  1. Performance assessment: This involves checking how well the model predicts or generates text. A common metric used is perplexity, which measures how well a model can predict a sample of text. A lower perplexity indicates better predictive performance.
  2. Knowledge and capability evaluation: This assesses the model’s ability to provide accurate and relevant information. It might involve tasks like question-answering or text completion to see how well the model understands and generates language.
  3. Alignment and safety evaluation: These evaluations check whether the model’s outputs are safe, unbiased, and ethically aligned. It involves testing for harmful outputs, biases, or misinformation.
  4. Use of evaluation metrics like BLEU and ROUGE: BLEU (Bilingual Evaluation Understudy) and ROUGE (Recall-Oriented Understudy for Gisting Evaluation) are metrics that assess the quality of machine-translated text against a set of reference translations.
  5. Holistic evaluation methods: Frameworks like the Holistic Evaluation of Language Models (HELM) evaluate models based on multiple metrics, including accuracy and calibration, to provide a comprehensive assessment.
  6. Human evaluation panels: In some cases, human evaluators assess aspects of the model’s output, such as coherence, relevance, and fluency, providing insights that automated metrics might miss.



These evaluation methods help in refining LLMs, ensuring they are not only efficient in language understanding and generation but also safe, unbiased, and aligned with ethical standards.



Large language model bootcamp

How to choose evaluation method in large language models

Deciding which evaluation method to use for large language models (LLMs) depends on the specific aspects of the model you wish to assess. Here are key considerations:

  1. Model performance: If the goal is to assess how well the model predicts or generates text, use metrics like perplexity, which quantifies the model’s predictive capabilities. Lower perplexity values indicate better performance.
  2. Adaptability to unfamiliar topics: Out-of-Distribution Testing can be used when you want to evaluate the model’s ability to handle new datasets or topics it hasn’t been trained on.
  3. Language fluency and coherence: If evaluating the fluency and coherence of the model’s generated text is essential, consider methods that measure these features directly, such as human evaluation panels or automated coherence metrics.
  4. Bias and fairness analysis: Diversity and bias analysis are critical for evaluating the ethical aspects of LLMs. Techniques like the Word Embedding Association Test (WEAT) can quantify biases in the model’s outputs.
  5. Manual human evaluation: This method is suitable for measuring the quality and performance of LLMs in terms of the naturalness and relevance of generated text. It involves having human evaluators assess the outputs manually.
  6. Zero-shot evaluation: This approach is used to measure the performance of LLMs on tasks they haven’t been explicitly trained for, which is useful for assessing the model’s generalization capabilities.

Each method addresses different aspects of LLM evaluation, so the choice should align with your specific evaluation goals and the characteristics of the model you are assessing.


Learn in detail about LLM evaluations


Evaluating LLMs is a multifaceted process requiring a combination of automated metrics and human judgment. It ensures that these models not only perform efficiently but also adhere to ethical standards, paving the way for their responsible and effective use in various applications.

January 2, 2024

Generative AI and LLMs are two modern technologies that can revolutionize the way we work, live, and play. They can help us create new things, solve problems, and understand the world better. We should all learn about these technologies so we can take advantage of the many opportunities they will create in the years to come.

Data Science Dojo Large Language Models Bootcamp

The Data Science Dojo Large Language Models Bootcamp is a 5-day in-person bootcamp that teaches you everything you need to know about large language models (LLMs) and their real-world applications.

Link to Bootcamp -> Large Language Models Bootcamp 

Test your large language models and generative AI knowledge

Key topics covered:

  • Generative AI and LLM Fundamentals
  • A comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of generative AI, foundation models and Large language models
  • Canonical Architectures of LLM Applications
  • An in-depth understanding of various LLM-powered application architectures and their relative tradeoffs
  • Embeddings and Vector Databases with practical experience
  • Prompt Engineering with practical experience
  • Orchestration Frameworks: LangChain and Llama Index with practical experience
  • Deployment of LLM Applications
  • Learn how to deploy your LLM applications using Azure and Hugging Face cloud
  • Customizing Large Language Models
  • Practical experience with fine-tuning, parameter efficient tuning and retrieval parameter-efficient + retrieval-augmented approaches
  • Building An End-to-End Custom LLM Application
  • A custom LLM application created on selected datasets


Instructor details:

The instructors at Data Science Dojo are experienced experts in the fields of LLMs and generative AI. They have a deep understanding of the theory and practice of LLMs, and they are passionate about teaching others about this exciting new field.

This bootcamp offers a comprehensive introduction to getting started with building a ChatGPT on your own data. By the end of the bootcamp, you will be capable of building LLM-powered applications on any dataset of your choice.


Location and duration:

The Data Science Dojo LLM Bootcamp has been held in Seattle, Washington D.C and Austin. The upcoming Bootcamp is scheduled in Seattle for Jan 29th – Feb 2nd, 2024. The large language model bootcamp lasts for 5 days. It is a full-time bootcamp, so you can expect to spend 8-10 hours per day learning and working on projects.


The Data Science Dojo LLM Bootcamp costs $3,499. There are a number of scholarships and payment plans available.


There are no formal prerequisites for the Data Science Dojo LLM Bootcamp. However, it is recommended that you have some basic knowledge of programming and machine learning.

Who should attend?

The Data Science Dojo LLM Bootcamp is ideal for anyone who is interested in learning about LLMs and building LLM-powered applications. This includes software engineers, data scientists, researchers, and anyone else who wants to be at the forefront of this rapidly growing field.

Application process:

To apply for the Data Science Dojo LLM Bootcamp, you will need to complete an online application form here.

Large language model bootcamp

AI Planet’s LLM Bootcamp

  • Key topics covered: This bootcamp is structured to provide an in-depth understanding of large language models (LLMs) and generative AI. Students will start with the basics and gradually delve into advanced topics. The curriculum encompasses:
    1. Building your own LLMs
    2. Fine-tuning existing models
    3. Using LLMs to create innovative applications
  • Duration: 7 weeks, August 12–September 24, 2023.
  • Location: Online—Learn from anywhere!
  • Instructors: The bootcamp boasts experienced experts in the field of LLMs and generative AI. These experts bring a wealth of knowledge and real-world experience to the classroom, ensuring that students receive a hands-on and practical education. Additionally, the bootcamp emphasizes hands-on projects where students can apply what they’ve learned to real-world scenarios.
  • Who should attend: The AI Planet LLM Bootcamp is ideal for anyone who is interested in learning about LLMs AI. This includes software engineers, data scientists, researchers, and anyone else who wants to be at the forefront of this rapidly growing field.

For a prospective student, AI Planet’s LLM Bootcamp offers a comprehensive education in the domain of large language models. The combination of experienced instructors, a hands-on approach, and a curriculum that covers both basics and advanced topics makes it a compelling option for anyone looking to delve into the world of LLMs and AI.

Learn to build LLM applications

Xavor Generative AI Bootcamp

The Xavor Generative AI Bootcamp is a 3-month online bootcamp that teaches you the skills you need to build and deploy generative AI applications. You’ll learn about the different types of generative AI models, how to train them, and how to use them to create innovative applications.

Link to Bootcamp -> Xavor Generative AI Bootcamp

Key topics covered:

  • Introduction to generative AI
  • Different types of AI models
  • Training and deploying AI models
  • Building AI applications
  • Case studies of generative AI applications in the real world

Instructor details:

The instructors at Xavor are experienced practitioners in the field of generative AI. They have a deep understanding of the theory and practice, and they are passionate about teaching others about this exciting new field.

Location and duration:

The Xavor Generative AI Bootcamp is held online and lasts for 3 months. It is a part-time bootcamp, so you can expect to spend 4-6 hours per week learning and working on projects.


The Xavor Bootcamp is free.


There are no formal prerequisites for the Xavor Bootcamp. However, it is recommended that you have some basic knowledge of programming and machine learning.

Who should attend:

The Xavor Bootcamp is ideal for anyone who is interested in learning about generative AI and building its applications. This includes software engineers, data scientists, researchers, and anyone else who wants to be at the forefront of this rapidly growing field.

Application process:

To apply for the Xavor Generative AI Bootcamp, you will need to complete an online application form. The application process includes a coding challenge and a video interview.


Full Stack LLM Bootcamp

The Full Stack Deep Learning (FSDL) LLM Bootcamp is a 2-day online bootcamp that teaches you the fundamentals of large language models (LLMs) and how to build and deploy LLM-powered applications.

Link to Bootcamp -> Full Stack LLM Bootcamp

Key topics covered:

  • Introduction to LLMs
  • Natural language processing (NLP)
  • Machine learning (ML)
  • Deep learning
  • TensorFlow
  • Building and deploying LLM-powered applications

Instructor details:

The instructors at FSDL are experienced experts in the field of LLMs and generative AI. They have a deep understanding of the theory and practice of LLMs, and they are passionate about teaching others about this exciting new field.

Location and duration:

The FSDL LLM Bootcamp is held online and lasts for 2 days. It is a full-time bootcamp, so you can expect to spend 8-10 hours per day learning and working on projects.


The FSDL LLM Bootcamp is free.


There are no formal prerequisites for the FSDL LLM Bootcamp. However, it is recommended that you have some basic knowledge of programming and machine learning.

Who should attend?

The FSDL LLM Bootcamp is ideal for anyone who is interested in learning about LLMs and building LLM-powered applications. This includes software engineers, data scientists, researchers, and anyone else who wants to be at the forefront of this rapidly growing field.

Application process:

There is no formal application process for the FSDL LLM Bootcamp. Simply register for the bootcamp on the FSDL website.

AI & Generative AI Bootcamp for end users course overview

The Generative AI Bootcamp for End Users is a 90-hour online bootcamp offered by Koenig Solutions. It is designed to teach beginners and non-technical professionals the fundamentals of artificial intelligence (AI) .

Link to Bootcamp -> Generative AI Bootcamp

Key topics covered:

  • Introduction to AI
  • Machine learning
  • Deep learning
  • Natural language processing (NLP)
  • Computer vision
  • Generative adversarial networks (GANs)
  • Diffusion models
  • Transformers
  • Practical applications of AI

Instructor details:

The instructors at Koenig Solutions are experienced industry professionals with a deep understanding of generative AI. They are passionate about teaching others about this rapidly growing field and helping them develop the skills they need to succeed in the AI workforce.

Location and duration:

The Bootcamp for End Users is held online and lasts for 90 hours. It is a part-time bootcamp, so you can expect to spend 4-6 hours per week learning and working on projects.


The Generative AI Bootcamp for End Users costs $999. There are a number of scholarships and payment plans available.


There are no formal prerequisites for the Generative AI Bootcamp for End Users. However, it is recommended that you have some basic knowledge of computers and the internet.

Who should attend?

The AI & Generative AI Bootcamp for End Users is ideal for anyone who is interested in learning about AI and generative AI, regardless of their technical background. This includes business professionals, entrepreneurs, students, and anyone else who wants to gain a competitive advantage in the AI-powered world of tomorrow.

Application process:

To apply for the AI & Generative AI Bootcamp for End Users, you will need to complete an online application form. The application process includes a short interview.

Additional information:

This Bootcamp for End Users is a certification program. Upon completion of the bootcamp, you will receive a certificate from Koenig Solutions that verifies your skills in AI and generative AI.

The bootcamp also includes access to a variety of resources, such as online lectures, tutorials, and hands-on projects. These resources will help you solidify your understanding of the material and develop the skills you need to succeed in the AI workforce.

Which LLM bootcamp will you join?

Generative AI is being used to develop new self-driving car algorithms, to create personalized medical treatments, and to generate new marketing campaigns. LLMs are being used to improve the performance of search engines, to develop new educational tools, and to create new forms of art and entertainment.

Overall, generative AI and LLMs are two of the most exciting and promising technologies of our time. By learning about these technologies, we can position ourselves to take advantage of the many opportunities they will create in the years to come.


October 27, 2023

LlamaIndex is an orchestration framework for large language model (LLM) applications. LLMs like GPT-4 are pre-trained on massive public datasets, allowing for incredible natural language processing capabilities out of the box. However, their utility is limited without access to your own private or domain-specific data. 

LlamaIndex solves this problem by providing a way to ingest, structure, and access your own data for use with LLMs. It supports a variety of data sources, including APIs, databases, and PDFs.

Learn to build LLM applications                                          


Once your data is indexed, it provides a number of ways to interact with it, including: 

  • Natural language querying: You can ask LlamaIndex questions about your data in plain English. For example, you could ask “What are the top 10 revenue-generating products?” or “What are the most common customer complaints?” 
  • Conversation with LLM-powered data agents: It can be used to create chatbots or other conversational interfaces that can access and process your data in real-time. This allows you to build applications that can provide personalized assistance to your users or answer their questions in a comprehensive and informative way. 
  • LLM-powered data analytics: It can also be used to power LLM-based data analytics applications. For example, you could use it to build a system that can automatically generate reports or insights from your data. 


Tune in to our Future of Data and AI Podcast featuring Co-founder and CEO of LlamaIndex, Jerry Liu himself!

Key components of LlamaIndex: 

The key components of LlamaIndex are as follows:  

  • Data connectors: These components allow LlamaIndex to ingest data from a variety of sources, such as APIs, databases, and PDFs. The data is converted into a simple document format that is easy for LlamaIndex to process. 
  • Data index: A data structure that stores the data in a way that makes it easy for LlamaIndex to find the relevant information when a user asks a question or starts a conversation. 
  • Retrievers: Retrievers are responsible for finding the most relevant information in the data index based on the user’s query or chat message. 
  • Query engines: Allow users to ask questions about their data in natural language. They accept natural language queries and provide comprehensive and informative responses. 
  • Chat engines: Allow users to have interactive conversations with their data. They maintain a contextual understanding of the conversation history and can provide answers that consider the relevant past context. 




In this tutorial, we will delve into the technical intricacies of constructing intelligent chatbots that leverage advanced technologies. Our example code will illustrate the development of a PDF Q&A chatbot that incorporates the OpenAI language model, VectorStoreIndex for document indexing and Streamlit for user interface design.

Large language model bootcamp


Furthermore, the chatbot will be equipped with the Llama Index’s Conversational Retrieval Chain, enabling it to furnish precise responses based on user queries. Let’s embark on this journey into the technical aspects of crafting a highly capable chatbot. 

Importing necessary libraries  

To commence our chatbot project, we need to import crucial libraries and functions. Here’s a breakdown of the libraries we will be utilizing: 

  • LlamaIndex: We harness the power of the Llama Index, a comprehensive framework tailored for developing applications enriched by language models. 
  • Streamlit: Streamlit, a Python library, serves as our toolkit for swiftly constructing web applications with an intuitive interface that facilitates user interaction. 


Setting OpenAI API key  

To access OpenAI’s language models effectively, it is imperative to configure our API key. Replace the placeholder with your actual OpenAI API key, obtainable from the OpenAI API platform. This key will act as our gateway to the powerful language models offered by OpenAI. Also you can use the dotenv route where you place your OPENAI key in the .env file. 


Setting up the user interface: 

This section delves into the creation of our user interface using Streamlit. The interface is meticulously designed to be clean, user-friendly, and feature-rich. It encompasses a title and a minimalist sidebar, providing an entry point for users to engage with our Q&A chatbot seamlessly.

user interface



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Main function and data loading: 

At the core of our chatbot lies the main function, which orchestrates the entire application logic. We initiate the process by loading data from a specified directory using a SimpleDirectoryReader. This data will serve as the knowledge repository from which our chatbot will draw answers to user inquiries. 

Data loading


Creating a service context: 

To enable the advanced natural language processing capabilities of our chatbot, we established a ServiceContext. This context is pre-configured with default settings and an OpenAI language model (llm). It lays the groundwork for our chatbot’s ability to understand and generate responses to user queries effectively. 

service context





Building the LlamaIndex: 

The pivotal component of our chatbot’s capabilities is the Llama Index. We construct this index using VectorStoreIndex, a versatile tool that optimizes the stored documents for efficient searching. This step ensures that our chatbot can rapidly retrieve pertinent information when faced with user queries. 

vector store index


User input and chat engine: 

Our user interface empowers users to input questions related to the provided data through a text input field. The chat engine processes these queries by harnessing the capabilities of the Llama Index. Subsequently, it generates responses based on the content indexed from the documents. This interaction constitutes the core functionality of our Q&A chatbot. 


User input


Running the application: 

With all the components in place, we culminate our code by executing the main function. This pivotal step transforms our project into an interactive chatbot. Users can seamlessly pose questions, and the chatbot, equipped with the Llama Index, responds with precise answers drawn from the indexed documents. 

Running the application



Benefits of using LlamaIndex 

There are a number of benefits to using LlamaIndex to create custom LLM applications: 

  • It is easy to use: Provides a simple and intuitive API for interacting with your data. 
  • It is flexible: Supports a variety of data sources and formats. It also provides a number of plugins and integrations that can be used to extend its functionality. 
  • It is scalable: Scaled to handle large datasets and high traffic volumes. 

In conclusion, this guide has offered a comprehensive roadmap for creating personalized Q&A chatbots with the Llama Index at their core.

By integrating cutting-edge technologies such as OpenAI for language processing, VectorStoreIndex for efficient document indexing, and the Llama Index’s Conversational Retrieval Chain, we have unlocked the potential for engaging, informative, and highly interactive question-answering experiences.

Feel encouraged to explore and expand upon this chatbot project, extending its capabilities to tackle more intricate tasks and challenges within the realm of AI-driven conversational systems. 

September 28, 2023

The recently unveiled Falcon Large Language Model, boasting 180 billion parameters, has surpassed Meta’s LLaMA 2, which had 70 billion parameters.


Falcon 180B: A game-changing open-source language model

The artificial intelligence community has a new champion in Falcon 180B, an open-source large language model (LLM) boasting a staggering 180 billion parameters, trained on a colossal dataset. This powerhouse newcomer has outperformed previous open-source LLMs on various fronts.

Falcon AI, particularly Falcon LLM 40B, represents a significant achievement by the UAE’s Technology Innovation Institute (TII). The “40B” designation indicates that this Large Language Model boasts an impressive 40 billion parameters.

Notably, TII has also developed a 7 billion parameter model, trained on a staggering 1500 billion tokens. In contrast, the Falcon LLM 40B model is trained on a dataset containing 1 trillion tokens from RefinedWeb. What sets this LLM apart is its transparency and open-source nature.


Large language model bootcamp

Falcon operates as an autoregressive decoder-only model and underwent extensive training on the AWS Cloud, spanning two months and employing 384 GPUs. The pretraining data predominantly comprises publicly available data, with some contributions from research papers and social media conversations.

Significance of Falcon AI

The performance of Large Language Models is intrinsically linked to the data they are trained on, making data quality crucial. Falcon’s training data was meticulously crafted, featuring extracts from high-quality websites, sourced from the RefinedWeb Dataset. This data underwent rigorous filtering and de-duplication processes, supplemented by readily accessible data sources. Falcon’s architecture is optimized for inference, enabling it to outshine state-of-the-art models such as those from Google, Anthropic, Deepmind, and LLaMa, as evidenced by its ranking on the OpenLLM Leaderboard.

Beyond its impressive capabilities, Falcon AI distinguishes itself by being open-source, allowing for unrestricted commercial use. Users have the flexibility to fine-tune Falcon with their data, creating bespoke applications harnessing the power of this Large Language Model. Falcon also offers Instruct versions, including Falcon-7B-Instruct and Falcon-40B-Instruct, pre-trained on conversational data. These versions facilitate the development of chat applications with ease.

Hugging Face Hub Release

Announced through a blog post by the Hugging Face AI community, Falcon 180B is now available on Hugging Face Hub.

This latest-model architecture builds upon the earlier Falcon series of open-source LLMs, incorporating innovations like multiquery attention to scale up to its massive 180 billion parameters, trained on a mind-boggling 3.5 trillion tokens.

Unprecedented Training Effort

Falcon 180B represents a remarkable achievement in the world of open-source models, featuring the longest single-epoch pretraining to date. This milestone was reached using 4,096 GPUs working simultaneously for approximately 7 million GPU hours, with Amazon SageMaker facilitating the training and refinement process.

Surpassing LLaMA 2 & commercial models

To put Falcon 180B’s size in perspective, its parameters are 2.5 times larger than Meta’s LLaMA 2 model, previously considered one of the most capable open-source LLMs. Falcon 180B not only surpasses LLaMA 2 but also outperforms other models in terms of scale and benchmark performance across a spectrum of natural language processing (NLP) tasks.

It achieves a remarkable 68.74 points on the open-access model leaderboard and comes close to matching commercial models like Google’s PaLM-2, particularly on evaluations like the HellaSwag benchmark.

Falcon AI: A strong benchmark performance

Falcon 180B consistently matches or surpasses PaLM-2 Medium on widely used benchmarks, including HellaSwag, LAMBADA, WebQuestions, Winogrande, and more. Its performance is especially noteworthy as an open-source model, competing admirably with solutions developed by industry giants.

Comparison with ChatGPT

Compared to ChatGPT, Falcon 180B offers superior capabilities compared to the free version but slightly lags behind the paid “plus” service. It typically falls between GPT 3.5 and GPT-4 in evaluation benchmarks, making it an exciting addition to the AI landscape.

Falcon AI with LangChain

LangChain is a Python library designed to facilitate the creation of applications utilizing Large Language Models (LLMs). It offers a specialized pipeline known as HuggingFacePipeline, tailored for models hosted on HuggingFace. This means that integrating Falcon with LangChain is not only feasible but also practical.

Installing LangChain package

Begin by installing the LangChain package using the following command:

This command will fetch and install the latest LangChain package, making it accessible for your use.

Creating a pipeline for Falcon model

Next, let’s create a pipeline for the Falcon model. You can do this by importing the required components and configuring the model parameters:

Here, we’ve utilized the HuggingFacePipeline object, specifying the desired pipeline and model parameters. The ‘temperature’ parameter is set to 0, reducing the model’s inclination to generate imaginative or off-topic responses. The resulting object, named ‘llm,’ stores our Large Language Model configuration.

PromptTemplate and LLMChain

LangChain offers tools like PromptTemplate and LLMChain to enhance the responses generated by the Large Language Model. Let’s integrate these components into our code:

In this section, we define a template for the PromptTemplate, outlining how our LLM should respond, emphasizing humor in this case. The template includes a question placeholder labeled {query}. This template is then passed to the PromptTemplate method and stored in the ‘prompt’ variable.

To finalize our setup, we combine the Large Language Model and the Prompt using the LLMChain method, creating an integrated model configured to generate humorous responses.

Putting it into action

Now that our model is configured, we can use it to provide humorous answers to user questions. Here’s an example code snippet:

In this example, we presented the query “How to reach the moon?” to the model, which generated a humorous response. The Falcon-7B-Instruct model followed the prompt’s instructions and produced an appropriate and amusing answer to the query.

This demonstrates just one of the many possibilities that this new open-source model, Falcon AI, can offer.

A promising future

Falcon 180B’s release marks a significant leap forward in the advancement of large language models. Beyond its immense parameter count, it showcases advanced natural language capabilities from the outset.

With its availability on Hugging Face, the model is poised to receive further enhancements and contributions from the community, promising a bright future for open-source AI.



Learn to build LLM applications


September 20, 2023

The world is riding the wave of generative AI, but can non-profit organizations hop on the bandwagon? The answer is yes! The latest technology, in particular, generative AI and LLM (Large Language Models), is a ticket to innovation.

From climate change and social justice to women empowerment and education, non-profit organizations are at the forefront of a plethora of the globe’s pressing issues. Despite their larger-than-life persona, non-profit organizations often have limited resources and staff, so they need to find ways to be as efficient and effective as possible.  

Generative-AI-empowering-non-profits – Source: Freepik

Navigating the non-profit maze: Common business problems

Nonprofits and NGOs face unique challenges and business problems due to their social missions and operational structures. Some common business problems faced by nonprofits and NGOs include: 

1. Limited funding and resources  

One of the biggest challenges that nonprofits face is limited funding resources. Nonprofits often must make do with less money, staff, and other resources than for-profit businesses. This is because they typically rely on donations, grants, and fundraising efforts to sustain their operations. Hence, limited funding can restrict their ability to expand programs, hire staff, or invest in infrastructure. 

2. Donor retention

Nonprofits need to maintain strong relationships with donors to secure ongoing financial support. Attracting and retaining donors can be challenging, as donors’ priorities and interests may change over time. 

3. Volunteer recruitment and retention  

Nonprofits often rely on volunteers to carry out their work. Recruiting and retaining dedicated volunteers can be a struggle, as individuals may have limited availability, fluctuating commitment levels, or require specific skill sets. 

4. Complex regulations 

Next on the challenge list, we have complex regulations that nonprofits must comply with, including those related to fundraising, financial reporting, and government contracting. These regulations can be time-consuming and expensive to comply with, and they can also make it difficult for nonprofits to innovate. 

5. Changing demographics 

Changing demographics pose challenges for nonprofits. The aging population requires adaptations in programs and services for seniors.

Despite these challenges, nonprofits play a significant role in society. They provide essential services to those in need, and they help to make the world a better place. By overcoming these challenges, nonprofits can continue to make a difference in the world. 

Closing the gap: Cue Generative AI and Large Language Models for non-profit organizations 

That is where generative AI comes in. Taking the world by storm, generative AI is a type of artificial intelligence that can create new data. This means that nonprofits can use generative AI to create personalized content for donors, automate tasks, analyze data, and create new products and services. 

Generative AI and large language models are emerging technologies that have the potential to help non-profits and NGOs overcome some of these challenges.  While generative AI can be used to create new content, LLMs can be used to analyze data and identify trends, which can help nonprofits make better decisions about their work.

Large language model bootcamp

How can generative AI and LLMs help non-profits run more effectively? 

1. Fundraising 

Grant writing: Generative AI can be used to help nonprofits write grant proposals. This can save nonprofits time and money, and it can also help them to write more effective proposals. 

RFP reviews: Generative AI can be used to help nonprofits review RFPs (requests for proposals). This can help nonprofits to identify opportunities to apply for funding, and it can also help them to ensure that their proposals are responsive to the RFPs. 

Funding thesis: Generative AI can be used to help nonprofits develop funding theses. This can help nonprofits to articulate their vision for how they will use the funding to achieve their mission, and it can also help them to attract funding from donors and funders. 

2. Operations

Customer support: Generative AI can be used to help nonprofits provide customer support. This can free up staff time to focus on other important work, and it can also help nonprofits to provide more consistent and accurate customer support. 

Employee learning and development: Generative AI can be used to help nonprofits provide employee learning and development. This can help nonprofits to ensure that their employees are well-versed with the latest trends and best practices, and it can also help them to improve employee retention. 

3. Compliance

Tax, compliance, and regulatory requirements: Generative AI can be used to help nonprofits stay up to date on tax, compliance, and regulatory requirements. This can help nonprofits to avoid costly mistakes, and it can also help them to ensure that they are operating in compliance with the law. 

4. Public relations

Public relations, marketing, social media, and donor reach relations: Generative AI can be used to help nonprofits with public relations, marketing, social media, and donor reach relations. This can help nonprofits to raise awareness of their work, attract new donors, and build relationships with stakeholders.  

How can Data Science Dojo help?  

At Data Science Dojo, we believe in purpose and profit. We are dedicated to making a positive impact on the world by empowering individuals, businesses, and industries with innovative solutions, particularly generative AI and LLM. Our motto is “Data science for everyone,” and we are committed to making tech accessible and affordable to everyone.

We believe that generative AI science is a powerful tool, even for non-professionals. By incorporating the latest generative AI technology, our experts can create custom solutions tailored to your brand’s needs, accelerating your business, and streamlining your operations. 

Supercharge your business with generative AI. Take the first step towards success – explore our Generative AI, Large Language Models and Custom Chat Bot services now! 


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June 5, 2023

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