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Huda Mahmood - Author
Huda Mahmood
| March 15

Covariant AI has emerged in the news with the introduction of its new model called RFM-1. The development has created a new promising avenue of exploration where humans and robots come together. With its progress and successful integration into real-world applications, it can unlock a new generation of AI advancements.

Explore the potential of generative AI and LLMs for non-profit organizations

In this blog, we take a closer look at the company and its new model.

What is Covariant AI?

The company develops AI-powered robots for warehouses and distribution centers. It spun off in 2017 from OpenAI by its ex-research scientists, Peter Chen and Pieter Abbeel. Its robots are powered by a technology called the Covariant Brain, a machine-learning (ML) model to train and improve robots’ functionality in real-world applications.

The company has recently launched a new AL model that takes up one of the major challenges in the development of robots with human-like intelligence. Let’s dig deeper into the problem and its proposed solution.

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What was the challenge?

Today’s digital world is heavily reliant on data to progress. Since generative AI is an important aspect of this arena, data and information form the basis of its development as well. So the development of enhanced functionalities in robots, and the appropriate training requires large volumes of data.

The limited amount of available data poses a great challenge, slowing down the pace of progress. It was a result of this challenge that OpenAI disbanded its robotics team in 2021. The data was insufficient to train the movements and reasoning of robots appropriately.

However, it all changed when Covariant AI introduced its new AI model.


Understanding the Covariant AI model

The company presented the world with RFM-1, its Robotics Foundation Model as a solution and a step ahead in the development of robotics. Integrating the characteristics of large language models (LLMs) with advanced robotic skills, the model is trained on a real-world dataset.

Covariant used its years of data from its AI-powered robots already operational in warehouses. For instance, the item-picking robots working in the warehouses of Crate & Barrel and Bonprix. With these large enough datasets, the challenge of data limitation was addressed, enabling the development of RFM-1.

Since the model leverages real-world data of robots operating within the industry, it is well-suited to train the machines efficiently. It brings together the reasoning of LLMs and the physical dexterity of robots which results in human-like learning of the robots.


An outlook of RFM-1
An outlook of the features and benefits of RFM-1


Unique features of RFM-1

The introduction of the new AI model by Covariant AI has definitely impacted the trajectory of future developments in generative AI. While we still have to see how the journey progresses, let’s take a look at some important features of RFM-1.

Multimodal training capabilities

The RFM-1 is designed to deal with five different types of input: text, images, video, robot instructions, and measurements. Hence, it is more diverse in data processing than a typical LLM that is primarily focused on textual data input.

Integration with the physical world

Unlike your usual LLMs, this AI model engages with the physical world around it through a robot. The multimodal data understanding enables it to understand the surrounding environment in addition to the language input. It enables the robot to interact with the physical world.

Advanced reasoning skills

The advanced AI model not only processes the available information but engages with it critically. Hence, RFM-1 has enhanced reasoning skills that provide the robot with a better understanding of situations and improved prediction skills.


Learn to build LLM applications


Benefits of RFM-1

The benefits of the AI model align with its unique features. Some notable advantages of this development are:

Enhanced performance of robots

The multimodal data enables the robots to develop a deeper understanding of their environments. It results in their improved engagement with the physical world, allowing them to perform tasks more efficiently and accurately. It will directly result in increased productivity and accuracy of business operations where the robots operate.

Improved adaptability

Based on the model’s improved reasoning skills, it ensure that the robots are equipped to understand, learn, and reason with new data. Hence, the robots become more versatile and adaptable to their changing environment.

Reduced reliance on programming

RFM-1 is built to constantly engage with and learn from its surroundings. Since it enables the robot to comprehend and reason with the changing input data, the reliance on pre-programmed instructions is reduced. The process of development and deployment becomes simpler and faster.

Hence, the multiple new features of RFM-1 empower it to create useful changes in the world of robotic development. Here’s a short video from Covariant AI, explaining and introducing their new AI model.

The future of RFM-1

The future of RFM-1 looks very promising, especially within the world of robotics. It has opened doors to a completely new possibility of developing a range of flexible and reliable robotic systems.

Covariant AI has taken the first step towards empowering commercial robots with an enhanced understanding of their physical world and language. Moreover, it has also introduced new avenues to integrate LLMs within the arena of generative AI applications.

Read about the top 10 industries that can benefit from LLMs

Huda Mahmood - Author
Huda Mahmood
| February 16

After DALL-E 3 and GPT-4, OpenAI has now introduced Sora as it steps into the realm of video generation with artificial intelligence. Let’s take a look at what we know about the platform so far and what it has to offer.


What is Sora?


It is a new generative AI Text-to-Video model that can create minute-long videos from a textual prompt. It can convert the text in a prompt into complex and detailed visual scenes, owing to its understanding of the text and the physical existence of objects in a video. Moreover, the model can express emotions in its visual characters.


Source: OpenAI


The above video was generated by using the following textual prompt on Sora:


Several giant wooly mammoths approach, treading through a snowy meadow, their long wooly fur lightly blows in the wind as they walk, snow covered trees and dramatic snow capped mountains in the distance, mid afternoon light with wispy clouds; and a sun high in the distance creates a warm glow, The low camera view is stunning, capturing the large furry mammal with beautiful photography, depth of field.


While it is a text-to-video generative model, OpenAI highlights that Sora can work with a diverse range of prompts, including existing images and videos. It enables the model to perform varying image and video editing tasks. It can create perfect looping videos, extend videos forward or backward, and animate static images.


Moreover, the model can also support image generation and interpolation between different videos. The interpolation results in smooth transitions between different scenes.


What is the current state of Sora?


Currently, OpenAI has only provided limited availability of Sora, primarily to graphic designers, filmmakers, and visual artists. The goal is to have people outside of the organization use the model and provide feedback. The human-interaction feedback will be crucial in improving the model’s overall performance.


Moreover, OpenAI has also highlighted that Sora has some weaknesses in its present model. It makes errors in comprehending and simulating the physics of complex scenes. Moreover, it produces confusing results regarding spatial details and has trouble understanding instances of cause and effect in videos.


Now, that we have an introduction to OpenAI’s new Text-to-Video model, let’s dig deeper into it.


OpenAI’s methodology to train generative models of videos


As explained in a research article by OpenAI, the generative models of videos are inspired by large language models (LLMs). The inspiration comes from the capability of LLMs to unite diverse modes of textual data, like codes, math, and multiple languages.


While LLMs use tokens to generate results, Sora uses visual patches. These patches are representations used to train generative models on varying videos and images. They are scalable and effective in the model-training process.


Compression of visual data to create patches


We need to understand how visual patches are created that Sora relies on to create complex and high-quality videos. OpenAI uses an AI-trained network to reduce the dimensionality of visual data. It is a process where a video input is initially compressed into a lower-dimensional latent space.


It results in a latent representation that is compressed both temporally and spatially, called patches. Sora operates within the same temporal space to generate videos. OpenAI simultaneously trains a decoder model to map the generated latent representations back to pixel space.


Generation of spacetime latent patches


When the Text-to-Video model is presented with a compressed video input, the AI model extracts from it a series of spacetime patches. These patches act as transformer tokens that are used to create a patch-based representation. It enables the model to train on videos and images of different resolutions, durations, and aspect ratios. It also enables control over the size of generated videos by arranging patches in a specific grid size.


What is Sora, architecturally?


Sora is a diffusion transformer that takes in noisy patches from the visual inputs and predicts the cleaner original patches. Like a typical diffusion transformer that produces effective results for various domains, it also ensures effective scaling of videos. The sample quality improves with an increase in training computation.


Below is an example from OpenAI’s research article that explains the reliance of quality outputs on training compute.


Source: OpenAI

This is the output produced with base compute. As you can see, the video results are not coherent and highly defined.


Let’s take a look at the same video with a higher compute.


Source: OpenAI


The same video with 4x compute produces a highly-improved result where the video characters can hold their shape and their movements are not as fuzzy. Moreover, you can also see that the video includes greater detail.


What happens when the computation times are increased even further?


Source: OpenAI


The results above were produced with 16x compute. As you can see, the video is in higher definition, where the background and characters include more details. Moreover, the movement of characters is more defined as well.


It shows that Sora’s operation as a diffusion transformer ensures higher quality results with increased training compute.


The future holds…


Sora is a step ahead in video generation models. While the model currently exhibits some inconsistencies, the demonstrated capabilities promise further development of video generation models. OpenAI talks about a promising future of the simulation of physical and digital worlds. Now, we must wait and see how Sora develops in the coming days of generative AI.

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Fiza Fatima
| January 11

In the rapidly evolving world of artificial intelligence, OpenAI has marked yet another milestone with the launch of the GPT Store. This innovative platform ushers in a new era for AI enthusiasts, developers, and businesses alike, offering a unique space to explore, create, and share custom versions of ChatGPT models.

The GPT Store is a platform designed to broaden the accessibility and application of AI technologies. It serves as a hub where users can discover and utilize a variety of GPT models.

These models are crafted not only by OpenAI but also by community members, enabling a wide range of applications and customizations.

The store facilitates easy exploration of these models, organized into different categories to suit various needs, such as productivity, education, and lifestyle. Visit chat.openai.com/gpts to explore.


OpenAI GPT Store
Source: CNET


This initiative represents a significant step in democratizing AI technology, allowing both developers and enthusiasts to share and leverage AI advancements in a more collaborative and innovative environment.

In this blog, we will delve into the exciting features of the GPT Store, its potential impact on various sectors, and what it means for the future of AI applications.


Features of GPT Store

The GPT Store by OpenAI offers several notable features:
  1. Platform for custom GPTs: It is an innovative platform where users can find, use, and share custom versions of ChatGPT, also known as GPTs. These GPTs are essentially custom versions of the standard ChatGPT, tailored for a specific purpose and enhanced with their additional information.
  2. Diverse range and weekly highlights: The store features a diverse range of GPTs, developed by both OpenAI’s partners and the broader community. Additionally, it offers weekly highlights of useful and impactful GPTs, serving as a showcase of the best and most interesting applications of the technology.
  3. Availability and enhanced controls: It is accessible to ChatGPT Plus, Teams and Enterprise For these users, the platform provides enhanced administrative controls. This includes the ability to choose how internal-only GPTs are shared and which external GPTs may be used within their businesses.
  4. User-created GPTs: It also empowers subscribers to create their own GPTs, even without any programming expertise.
    For those who want to share a GPT in the store, they are required to save their GPT for everyone and verify their Builder Profile. This facilitates a continuous evolution and enrichment of the platform’s offerings.
  5. Revenue-sharing program: An exciting feature is its planned revenue-sharing program. This program intends to reward GPT creators based on the user engagement their GPTs generate. This feature is expected to provide a new lucrative avenue for them.
  6. Management for team and enterprise customers: It offers special features for Team and Enterprise customers, including private sections with securely published GPTs and enhanced admin controls.

Examples of custom GPTs available on the GPT Store

The earliest featured GPTs on the platform include the following:

  1. AllTrails: This platform offers personalized recommendations for hiking and walking trails, catering to outdoor enthusiasts.
  2. Khan Academy Code Tutor: An educational tool that provides programming tutoring, making learning code more accessible.
  3. Canva: A GPT designed to assist in digital design, integrated into the popular design platform, Canva.
  4. Books: This GPT is tuned to provide advice on what to read and field questions about reading, making it an ideal tool for avid readers.


What is the significance of the GPT Store in OpenAI’s business strategy?

This is a significant component of OpenAI’s business strategy as it aims to expand OpenAI’s ecosystem, stay competitive in the AI industry, and serve as a new revenue source.

The Store likened to Apple’s App Store, is a marketplace that allows users to list personalized chatbots, or GPTs, that they’ve built for others to download.

By offering a range of GPTs developed by both OpenAI business partners and the broader ChatGPT community, this platform democratizes AI technology, making it more accessible and useful to a wide range of users.

Importantly, it is positioned as a potential profit-making avenue for GPT creators through a planned revenue-sharing program based on user engagement. This aspect might foster a more vibrant and innovative community around the platform.

By providing these platforms, OpenAI aims to stay ahead of rivals such as Anthropic, Google, and Meta in the AI industry. As of November, ChatGPT had about 100 million weekly active users and more than 92% of Fortune 500 companies use the platform, underlining its market penetration and potential for growth.

Boost your business with ChatGPT: 10 innovative ways to monetize using AI


Looking ahead: GPT Store’s role in shaping the future of AI

The launch of the platform by OpenAI is a significant milestone in the realm of AI. By offering a platform where various GPT models, both from OpenAI and the community, are available, the AI platform opens up new possibilities for innovation and application across different sectors.

It’s not just a marketplace; it’s a breeding ground for creativity and a step forward in making AI more user-friendly and adaptable to diverse needs.

The potential of the newly launched Store extends far beyond its current offerings. It signifies a future where AI can be more personalized and integrated into various aspects of work and life.

OpenAI’s continuous innovation in the AI landscape, as exemplified by the GPT platform, paves the way for more advanced, efficient, and accessible AI tools. This platform is likely to stimulate further AI advancements and collaborations, enhancing how we interact with technology and its role in solving complex problems.
This isn’t just a product; it’s a gateway to the future of AI, where possibilities are as limitless as our imagination.
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Fiza Fatima
| November 22

On November 17, 2023, the tech world witnessed a huge event: the abrupt dismissal of Sam Altman, OpenAI’s CEO. This unexpected shakeup sent ripples through the AI industry, sparking inquiries into the company’s future, the interplay between profit and ethics in AI development, and the delicate balance of innovation. 

So, why did OpenAI part ways with one of its most prominent figures? This is a paradoxical question making everyone question the reason for such a big move. 

Let’s delve into the nuances and build a comprehensive understanding of the situation. 


dismissal of Sam Altman
OpenAI history and timeline



A glimpse into Sam Altman’s exit

OpenAI’s board of directors cited a lack of transparency and candid communication as the grounds for Altman’s removal. This raised concerns that his leadership style deviated from comapny’s core mission of ensuring AI benefits humanity. The dismissal, far from an isolated incident, unveiled longstanding tensions within the organization. 

Learn about: DALL-E, GPT-3, and MuseNet


Understanding OpenAI’s structure

To understand the reasons behind Altman’s dismissal, it’s crucial to grasp the organizational structure. The organization comprises a non-profit entity focused on developing safe AI and a for-profit subsidiary, which was later built by Altman. Profits are capped to prioritize safety, with excess returns to the non-profit arm. 


Source: OpenAI 

Theories behind Altman’s departure

Now that we have some context of the structure of this organization, let’s proceed to theorize some pressing possibilities of Sam Altman’s removal from the company. 

Altman’s emphasis on profits vs. OpenAI’s not-for-profit origins 

OpenAI was initially established as a nonprofit organization with the mission to ensure that artificial general intelligence (AGI) is developed and used for the benefit of all of humanity.

The board members are bound to this mission, which entails creating a safe AGI that is broadly beneficial rather than pursuing profit-driven objectives aligned with traditional shareholder theory.  

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On the other hand, Altman has been vocal about the commercial potential of an AI technology. He has actively pursued partnerships and commercialization efforts to generate revenue and ensure the financial sustainability of the company. This profit-driven approach aligns with Altman’s desire to see the company thrive as a powerful tech company in Silicon Valley. 


The conflict between the company’s board’s not-for-profit emphasis and Altman’s profit-driven approach may have influenced his dismissal. The board may have sought to maintain a beneficial mission and adherence to its nonprofit origins, leading to tensions and clashes over the company’s commercial vision. 


Read about: ChatGPT enterprise 


Side projects pursued by Sam Altman caused disputes with OpenAI’s board

Altman’s side projects were seen as conflicting with its mission. The pursuit of profit and the focus on side projects were viewed as diverting attention and resources away from its core objective of developing AI technology that could benefit society.

This conflict led to tensions within the company and raised concerns among customers and investors about OpenAI’s direction. 

  1. WorldCoin: Altman’s eyeball-scanning crypto project, which launched in July. Read more
  2. Potential AI Chip-Maker: Altman explored starting his own AI chipmaker and pitched sovereign wealth funds in the Middle East on an investment that could reach into the tens of billions of dollars. Read more
  3. AI-Oriented Hardware Company: Altman pitched SoftBank Group Corp. on a potential multibillion-dollar investment in a company he planned to start with former Apple design guru Jony I’ve to make AI-oriented hardware. Read more

Speculations on a secret deal: 

Amid Sam Altman’s departure from the organization, speculation revolves around the theory that he may have bypassed the board in a major undisclosed deal, hinted at by the board’s reference to him as “not consistently candid.”

The conjecture involves the possibility of a bold move that the board would disapprove of, with the potential involvement of major investor Microsoft. The nature and scale of this secret deal, as well as Microsoft’s reported surprise, add layers of intrigue to the unfolding narrative. 

Impact of transparency failures: 

According to the board members, Sam Altman’s removal from the company stemmed from a breakdown in transparent communication with the board, eroding trust and hindering effective governance.  

His failure to consistently share key decisions and strategic matters created uncertainty, impeding the board’s ability to contribute. Allegations of circumventing the board in major decisions underscored a lack of transparency and breached trust, prompting Altman’s dismissal.  

Security concerns and remedial measures: 

Sam Altman’s departure from OpenAI was driven by significant security concerns regarding the organization’s AI technology. Key incidents included:

  • ChatGPT Flaws: In November 2023, researchers at Cornell University identified vulnerabilities in ChatGPT that could potentially lead to data theft. 
  • Chinese Scientist Exploitation: In October 2023, Chinese scientists demonstrated the exploitation of ChatGPT weaknesses for cyberattacks, underscoring the risk of malicious use. 
  • Misuse Warning: University of Sheffield researchers warned in September 2023 about the potential misuse of AI tools, such as ChatGPT, for harmful purposes. 


Allegedly, Altman’s lack of transparency in addressing these security issues heightened concerns about OpenAI’s technology safety, contributing to his dismissal. Subsequently, it has implemented new security measures and appointed a head of security to address these issues. 

The future of OpenAI: 

Altman’s removal and the uncertainty surrounding OpenAI’s future raised concerns among customers and investors. Additionally, nearly all OpenAI employees threatened to quit and follow Altman out of the company.

There were also discussions among investors about potentially writing down the value of their investments and backing Altman’s new venture. Overall, Altman’s dismissal has had far-reaching consequences, impacting the stability, talent pool, investments, partnerships, and future prospects of the company. 

In the aftermath of Sam Altman’s departure, the organization now stands at a crossroads. The clash of ambitions, influence from key figures, and security concerns have shaped a narrative of disruption.

As the organization grapples with these challenges, the path forward requires a delicate balance between innovation, ethics, and transparent communication to ensure AI’s responsible and beneficial development for humanity. 


Learn to build LLM applications


Data Science Dojo Staff
| August 18

Large language models (LLMs) are AI models that can generate text, translate languages, write different kinds of creative content, and answer your questions in an informative way. They are trained on massive amounts of text data, and they can learn to understand the nuances of human language.

In this blog, we will take a deep dive into LLMs, including their building blocks, such as embeddings, transformers, and attention. We will also discuss the different applications of LLMs, such as machine translation, question answering, and creative writing.

To test your knowledge, we have included a crossword or quiz at the end of the blog. So, what are you waiting for? Let’s crack the code of large language models!


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Read more –>  40-hour LLM application roadmap

LLMs are typically built using a transformer architecture. Transformers are a type of neural network that are well-suited for natural language processing tasks. They are able to learn long-range dependencies between words, which is essential for understanding the nuances of human language.

They are typically trained on clusters of computers or even on cloud computing platforms. The training process can take weeks or even months, depending on the size of the dataset and the complexity of the model.

20 essential terms for crafting LLM-powered applications


1. Large language model (LLM)

Large language models (LLMs) are AI models that can generate text, translate languages, write different kinds of creative content, and answer your questions in an informative way. The building blocks of an LLM are embeddings, transformers, attention, and loss functions. Embeddings are vectors that represent the meaning of words or phrases. Transformers are a type of neural network that are well-suited for NLP tasks. Attention is a mechanism that allows the LLM to focus on specific parts of the input text. The loss function is used to measure the error between the LLM’s output and the desired output. The LLM is trained to minimize the loss function.

2. OpenAI

OpenAI is a non-profit research company that develops and deploys artificial general intelligence (AGI) in a safe and beneficial way. AGI is a type of artificial intelligence that can understand and reason like a human being. OpenAI has developed a number of LLMs, including GPT-3, Jurassic-1 Jumbo, and DALL-E 2.

GPT-3 is a large language model that can generate text, translate languages, write different kinds of creative content, and answer your questions in an informative way. Jurassic-1 Jumbo is a larger language model that is still under development. It is designed to be more powerful and versatile than GPT-3. DALL-E 2 is a generative AI model that can create realistic images from text descriptions.

3. Generative AI

Generative AI is a type of AI that can create new content, such as text, images, or music. LLMs are a type of generative AI. They are trained on large datasets of text and code, which allows them to learn the patterns of human language. This allows them to generate text that is both coherent and grammatically correct.

Generative AI has a wide range of potential applications. It can be used to create new forms of art and entertainment, to develop new educational tools, and to improve the efficiency of businesses. It is still a relatively new field, but it is rapidly evolving.

4. ChatGPT

ChatGPT is a large language model (LLM) developed by OpenAI. It is designed to be used in chatbots. ChatGPT is trained on a massive dataset of text and code, which allows it to learn the patterns of human conversation. This allows it to hold conversations that are both natural and engaging. ChatGPT is also capable of answering questions, providing summaries of factual topics, and generating different creative text formats.

5. Bard

Bard is a large language model (LLM) developed by Google AI. It is still under development, but it has been shown to be capable of generating text, translating languages, and writing different kinds of creative content. Bard is trained on a massive dataset of text and code, which allows it to learn the patterns of human language. This allows it to generate text that is both coherent and grammatically correct. Bard is also capable of answering your questions in an informative way, even if they are open ended, challenging, or strange.

6. Foundation models

Foundation models are a family of large language models (LLMs) developed by Google AI. They are designed to be used as a starting point for developing other AI models. Foundation models are trained on massive datasets of text and code, which allows them to learn the patterns of human language. This allows them to be used to develop a wide range of AI applications, such as chatbots, machine translation, and question-answering systems.

7. LangChain

LangChain is a text-to-image diffusion model that can be used to generate images from text descriptions. It is based on the Transformer model and is trained on a massive dataset of text and images. LangChain is still under development, but it has the potential to be a powerful tool for creative expression and problem-solving.

8. Llama Index

Llama Index is a data framework for large language models (LLMs). It provides tools to ingest, structure, and access private or domain-specific data. LlamaIndex can be used to connect LLMs to a variety of data sources, including APIs, PDFs, documents, and SQL databases. It also provides tools to index and query data, so that LLMs can easily access the information they need.

Llama Index is a relatively new project, but it has already been used to build a number of interesting applications. For example, it has been used to create a chatbot that can answer questions about the stock market, and a system that can generate creative text formats, like poems, code, scripts, musical pieces, email, and letters.

9. Redis

Redis is an in-memory data store that can be used to store and retrieve data quickly. It is often used as a cache for web applications, but it can also be used for other purposes, such as storing embeddings. Redis is a popular choice for NLP applications because it is fast and scalable.

10. Streamlit

Streamlit is a framework for creating interactive web apps. It is easy to use and does not require any knowledge of web development. Streamlit is a popular choice for NLP applications because it allows you to quickly and easily build web apps that can be used to visualize and explore data.

11. Cohere

Cohere is a large language model (LLM) developed by Google AI. It is known for its ability to generate human-quality text. Cohere is trained on a massive dataset of text and code, which allows it to learn the patterns of human language. This allows it to generate text that is both coherent and grammatically correct. Cohere is also capable of translating languages, writing different kinds of creative content, and answering your questions in an informative way.

12. Hugging Face

Hugging Face is a company that develops tools and resources for NLP. It offers a number of popular open-source libraries, including Transformer models and datasets. Hugging Face also hosts a number of online communities where NLP practitioners can collaborate and share ideas.



LLM Crossword
LLM Crossword

13. Midjourney

Midjourney is a LLM developed by Midjourney. It is a text-to-image AI platform that uses a large language model (LLM) to generate images from natural language descriptions. The user provides a prompt to Midjourney, and the platform generates an image that matches the prompt. Midjourney is still under development, but it has the potential to be a powerful tool for creative expression and problem-solving.

14. Prompt Engineering

Prompt engineering is the process of crafting prompts that are used to generate text with LLMs. The prompt is a piece of text that provides the LLM with information about what kind of text to generate.

Prompt engineering is important because it can help to improve the performance of LLMs. By providing the LLM with a well-crafted prompt, you can help the model to generate more accurate and creative text. Prompt engineering can also be used to control the output of the LLM. For example, you can use prompt engineering to generate text that is similar to a particular style of writing, or to generate text that is relevant to a particular topic.

When crafting prompts for LLMs, it is important to be specific, use keywords, provide examples, and be patient. Being specific helps the LLM to generate the desired output, but being too specific can limit creativity.

Using keywords helps the LLM focus on the right topic, and providing examples helps the LLM learn what you are looking for. It may take some trial and error to find the right prompt, so don’t give up if you don’t get the desired output the first time.

Read more –> How to become a prompt engineer?

15. Embeddings

Embeddings are a type of vector representation of words or phrases. They are used to represent the meaning of words in a way that can be understood by computers. LLMs use embeddings to learn the relationships between words. Embeddings are important because they can help LLMs to better understand the meaning of words and phrases, which can lead to more accurate and creative text generation. Embeddings can also be used to improve the performance of other NLP tasks, such as natural language understanding and machine translation.

Read more –> Embeddings: The foundation of large language models

16. Fine-tuning

Fine-tuning is the process of adjusting the parameters of a large language model (LLM) to improve its performance on a specific task. Fine-tuning is typically done by feeding the LLM a dataset of text that is relevant to the task.

For example, if you want to fine-tune an LLM to generate text about cats, you would feed the LLM a dataset of text that contains information about cats. The LLM will then learn to generate text that is more relevant to the task of generating text about cats.

Fine-tuning can be a very effective way to improve the performance of an LLM on a specific task. However, it can also be a time-consuming and computationally expensive process.

17. Vector databases

Vector databases are a type of database that is optimized for storing and querying vector data. Vector data is data that is represented as a vector of numbers. For example, an embedding is a vector that represents the meaning of a word or phrase.

Vector databases are often used to store embeddings because they can efficiently store and retrieve large amounts of vector data. This makes them well-suited for tasks such as natural language processing (NLP), where embeddings are often used to represent words and phrases.

Vector databases can be used to improve the performance of fine-tuning by providing a way to store and retrieve large datasets of text that are relevant to the task. This can help to speed up the fine-tuning process and improve the accuracy of the results.

18. Natural Language Processing (NLP)

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is a field of computer science that deals with the interaction between computers and human (natural) languages. NLP tasks include text analysis, machine translation, and question answering. LLMs are a powerful tool for NLP. NLP is a complex field that covers a wide range of tasks. Some of the most common NLP tasks include:

  • Text analysis: This involves extracting information from text, such as the sentiment of a piece of text or the entities that are mentioned in the text.
    • For example, an NLP model could be used to determine whether a piece of text is positive or negative, or to identify the people, places, and things that are mentioned in the text.
  • Machine translation: This involves translating text from one language to another.
    • For example, an NLP model could be used to translate a news article from English to Spanish.
  • Question answering: This involves answering questions about text.
    • For example, an NLP model could be used to answer questions about the plot of a movie or the meaning of a word.
  • Speech recognition: This involves converting speech into text.
    • For example, an NLP model could be used to transcribe a voicemail message.
  • Text generation: This involves generating text, such as news articles or poems.
    • For example, an NLP model could be used to generate a creative poem or a news article about a current event.

19. Tokenization

Tokenization is the process of breaking down a piece of text into smaller units, such as words or subwords. Tokenization is a necessary step before LLMs can be used to process text. When text is tokenized, each word or subword is assigned a unique identifier. This allows the LLM to track the relationships between words and phrases.

There are many different ways to tokenize text. The most common way is to use word boundaries. This means that each word is a token. However, some LLMs can also handle subwords, which are smaller units of text that can be combined to form words.

For example, the word “cat” could be tokenized as two subwords: “c” and “at”. This would allow the LLM to better understand the relationships between words, such as the fact that “cat” is related to “dog” and “mouse”.

20. Transformer models

Transformer models are a type of neural network that are well-suited for NLP tasks. They are able to learn long-range dependencies between words, which is essential for understanding the nuances of human language. Transformer models work by first creating a representation of each word in the text. This representation is then used to calculate the relationship between each word and the other words in the text.

The Transformer model is a powerful tool for NLP because it can learn the complex relationships between words and phrases. This allows it to perform NLP tasks with a high degree of accuracy. For example, a Transformer model could be used to translate a sentence from English to Spanish while preserving the meaning of the sentence.


Read more –> Transformer Models: The future of Natural Language Processing


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Data Science Dojo
Ayesha Saleem
| July 23

In the field of software development, generative AI is already being used to automate tasks such as code generation, bug detection, and documentation.

Generative AI is a rapidly growing field of artificial intelligence that is transforming the way we interact with the world around us. Generative AI models are able to create new content, such as text, images, and code, from scratch.

This has the potential to revolutionize many industries, as it can automate tasks, improve efficiency, and generate new ideas.

Similarly, this can save developers a significant amount of time and effort, and it can also help improve the code’s quality. In addition, generative AI is being used to generate new ideas for software products and services. This can help businesses to stay ahead of the competition and to deliver better products and services to their customers.


open AI for software developers
Open AI for software developers


Here are some specific examples of how generative AI is being used in different industries:


  • The healthcare industry: Generative AI is being used to develop new drugs and treatments, to create personalized medical plans, and provide more accurate diagnoses.
  • The financial industry: Generative AI is being used to develop new financial products, to detect fraud, and to provide more personalized financial advice.
  • The retail industry: Generative AI is being used to create personalized product recommendations, to generate marketing content, and to optimize inventory levels.
  • The manufacturing industry: Generative AI is being used to design new products, to optimize manufacturing processes, and to improve product quality.


Large language model bootcamp 

These are just a few examples of how generative AI is being used to improve different industries. As generative AI technology continues to develop, we can expect to see even more ways that AI can be used to automate and streamline tasks, generate new ideas, and deliver better outcomes.

Specifically, in the field of software development, generative AI has the potential to revolutionize the way software is created. By automating tasks such as code generation and bug detection, generative AI can save developers a significant amount of time and effort.

This can free up developers to focus on more creative and strategic tasks, such as designing new features and products. In addition, generative AI can be used to generate new ideas for software products and services. This can help businesses to stay ahead of the competition and to deliver better products and services to their customers.

The future of generative AI in software development is very promising. As generative AI technology continues to develop, we can expect to see even more ways that AI can be used to automate and streamline the software development process, generate new ideas, and deliver better outcomes.

Use cases of Generative AI for software developers

Here are some ways OpenAI can help software developers:

1. Code generation:

OpenAI’s large language models can be used to generate code snippets, complete code, and even write entire applications. This can save developers a lot of time and effort, and it can also help to improve the quality of the code. For example, OpenAI’s ChatGPT model can be used to generate code snippets based on natural language descriptions.

For example:

Prompt: If you ask ChatGPT to “generate a function that takes a list of numbers and returns the sum of the even numbers,” it will generate the following Python code.

2. Bug detection:

OpenAI’s machine learning models can be used to detect bugs and errors in code. This can be a valuable tool for large software projects, where manual code review can be time-consuming and error prone.

For example:

Prompt: “Find all bugs in the following code.”

3. Recommendations:

OpenAI’s large language models can be used to recommend libraries, frameworks, and other resources to developers. This can help developers to find the right tools for the job, and it can also help them to stay up-to-date on the latest trends in software development.

For example:

Prompt: “Recommend a library for natural language processing.”

Answer: The AI tool will recommend a few popular libraries for natural language processing, such as spaCy and NLTK. The AI tool will also provide a brief overview of each library, including its strengths and weaknesses.


Read more about   —> Prompt Engineering

4. Documentation:

OpenAI’s large language models can be used to generate documentation for code. This can be a valuable tool for both developers and users, as it can help to make code more readable and understandable.

For example:

The sum_even_numbers function takes a list of numbers and returns the sum of the even numbers.
Prompt: “Generate documentation for the following function.”


5. Test case generation:

Generative AI models can be used to generate test cases for code. This can help to ensure that code is properly tested and that it is free of bugs.

For example:

Prompt: “Generate test cases for the following function.”

    • The function works correctly when the list of numbers is empty.
    • The function works correctly when the list of numbers contains only even numbers.
    • The function works correctly when the list of numbers contains both even and odd numbers.


Learn to build codeless data apps in this video

6. Code completion:

Generative AI models can be used to suggest code completions as developers’ type. This can save time and reduce errors, especially for repetitive or tedious tasks.

For example:

Prompt: “Suggest code completions for the following function.”


Answer: The AI tool will suggest a number of possible completions for the function, based on the code that has already been written. For example, the AI tool might suggest the following completions for the line if number % 2 == 0::

    • if number % 2 == 0 else False: This will return False if number is not an even number.
    • if number % 2 == 0: return True else return False: This will return True if number is an even number, and False otherwise.

7. Idea generation:

Generative AI models can be used to generate new ideas for software products and services. This can help businesses to stay ahead of the competition and to deliver better products and services to their customers.

For example:

  • Prompt: “Generate ideas for a new software product.”
  • Answer: The AI tool will generate a number of ideas for a new software product, based on the user’s input. For example, the AI tool might generate ideas for a software product that:
    • It helps people to learn a new language.
    • Helps people to manage their finances.
    • Helps people to find and book travel.


These are just a few of the ways that OpenAI can help software developers. As OpenAI’s models continue to improve, we can expect to see even more ways that AI can be used to automate and streamline the software development process. If you are willing to build your own Large Language Model applications, then register today in our upcoming LLM Bootcamp.

Hyder-LLMs-Generative AI
Syed Hyder Ali Zaidi
| May 22

Large language models (LLMs) like GPT-3 and GPT-4. revolutionized the landscape of NLP. These models have laid a strong foundation for creating powerful, scalable applications. However, the potential of these models isaffected by the quality of the prompt. This highlights the importance of prompt engineering.



Furthermore, real-world NLP applications often require more complexity than a single ChatGPT session can provide. This is where LangChain comes into play! 



Get more information on Large Language models and its applications and tools by clicking below:

Large language model bootcamp


Harrison Chase’s brainchild, LangChain, is a Python library designed to help you leverage the power of LLMs to build custom NLP applications. As of May 2023, this game-changing library has already garnered almost 40,000 stars on GitHub. 



Interested in learning about Large Language Models and building custom ChatGPT like applications for your business? Click below

Learn More                  


This comprehensive beginner’s guide provides a thorough introduction to LangChain, offering a detailed exploration of its core features. It walks you through the process of building a basic application using LangChain and shares valuable tips and industry best practices to make the most of this powerful framework. Whether you’re new to Language Learning Models (LLMs) or looking for a more efficient way to develop language generation applications, this guide serves as a valuable resource to help you leverage the capabilities of LLMs with LangChain. 

Overview of LangChain modules 

These modules are essential for any application using the Language Model (LLM).


LangChain offers standardized and adaptable interfaces for each module. Additionally, LangChain provides external integrations and even ready-made implementations for seamless usage. Let’s delve deeper into these modules. 

Overview of LangChain Modules
Overview of LangChain Modules


LLM is the fundamental component of LangChain. It is essentially a wrapper around a large language model that helps use the functionality and capability of a specific large language model. 


As stated earlier, LLM (Language Model) serves as the fundamental unit within LangChain. However, in line with the “LangChain” concept, it offers the ability to link together multiple LLM calls to address specific objectives. 

For instance, you may have a need to retrieve data from a specific URL, summarize the retrieved text, and utilize the resulting summary to answer questions. 

On the other hand, chains can also be simpler in nature. For instance, you might want to gather user input, construct a prompt using that input, and generate a response based on the constructed prompt. 


Large language model bootcamp



Prompts have become a popular modeling approach in programming. It simplifies prompt creation and management with specialized classes and functions, including the essential PromptTemplate. 


Document loaders and Utils 

LangChain’s Document Loaders and Utils modules simplify data access and computation. Document loaders convert diverse data sources into text for processing, while the utils module offers interactive system sessions and code snippets for mathematical computations. 

Vector stores 

The widely used index type involves generating numerical embeddings for each document using an embedding model. These embeddings, along with the associated documents, are stored in a vector store. This vector store enables efficient retrieval of relevant documents based on their embeddings. 


LangChain offers a flexible approach for tasks where the sequence of language model calls is not deterministic. Its “Agents” can act based on user input and previous responses. The library also integrates with vector databases and has memory capabilities to retain the state between calls, enabling more advanced interactions. 


Building our App 

Now that we’ve gained an understanding of LangChain, let’s build a PDF Q/A Bot app using LangChain and OpenAI. Let me first show you the architecture diagram for our app and then we will start with our app creation. 


QA Chatbot Architecture
QA Chatbot Architecture


Below is an example code that demonstrates the architecture of a PDF Q&A chatbot. This code utilizes the OpenAI language model for natural language processing, the FAISS database for efficient similarity search, PyPDF2 for reading PDF files, and Streamlit for creating a web application interface.


The chatbot leverages LangChain’s Conversational Retrieval Chain to find the most relevant answer from a document based on the user’s question. This integrated setup enables an interactive and accurate question-answering experience for the users. 

Importing necessary libraries 

Import Statements: These lines import the necessary libraries and functions required to run the application. 

  • PyPDF2: Python library used to read and manipulate PDF files. 
  • langchain: a framework for developing applications powered by language models. 
  • streamlit: A Python library used to create web applications quickly. 
Importing necessary libraries
Importing necessary libraries

If the LangChain and OpenAI are not installed already, you first need to run the following commands in the terminal. 

Install LangChain


Setting openAI API key 

You will replace the placeholder with your OpenAI API key which you can access from OpenAI API. The above line sets the OpenAI API key, which you need to use OpenAI’s language models. 

Setting OpenAI API Key

Streamlit UI 

These lines of code create the web interface using Streamlit. The user is prompted to upload a PDF file.

Streamlit UI
Streamlit UI

Reading the PDF file 

If a file has been uploaded, this block reads the PDF file, extracts the text from each page, and concatenates it into a single string. 

Reading the PDF File
Reading the PDF File

Text splitting 

Language Models are often limited by the amount of text that you can pass to them. Therefore, it is necessary to split them up into smaller chunks. It provides several utilities for doing so. 

Text Splitting 
Text Splitting

Using a Text Splitter can also help improve the results from vector store searches, as eg. smaller chunks may sometimes be more likely to match a query. Here we are splitting the text into 1k tokens with 200 tokens overlap. 


Here, the OpenAIEmbeddings function is used to download embeddings, which are vector representations of the text data. These embeddings are then used with FAISS to create an efficient search index from the chunks of text.  


Creating conversational retrieval chain 

The chains developed are modular components that can be easily reused and connected. They consist of predefined sequences of actions encapsulated in a single line of code. With these chains, there’s no need to explicitly call the GPT model or define prompt properties. This specific chain allows you to engage in conversation while referencing documents and retains a history of interactions. 

Creating Conversational Retrieval Chain
Creating Conversational Retrieval Chain

Streamlit for generating responses and displaying in the App 

This block prepares a response that includes the generated answer and the source documents and displays it on the web interface. 

Streamlit for Generating Responses and Displaying in the App
Streamlit for Generating Responses and Displaying in the App

Let’s run our App 

QA Chatbot
QA Chatbot

Here we uploaded a PDF, asked a question, and got our required answer with the source document. See, that is how the magic of LangChain works.  

You can find the code for this app on my GitHub repository LangChain-Custom-PDF-Chatbot.

Build your own conversational AI applications 

Concluding the journey! Mastering LangChain for creating a basic Q&A application has been a success. I trust you have acquired a fundamental comprehension of LangChain’s potential. Now, take the initiative to delve into LangChain further and construct even more captivating applications. Enjoy the coding adventure.


Learn to build custom large language model applications today!                                                

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