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In this blog, we will be getting started with the Llama 2 open-source large language model. We will guide you through various methods of accessing it, ensuring that by the end, you will be well-equipped to unlock the power of this remarkable language model for your projects.

Whether you are a developer, researcher, or simply curious about its capabilities, this blog will equip you with the knowledge and tools you need to get started. 

 

Understanding Llama 2 

In the ever-evolving landscape of artificial intelligence, language models have emerged as pivotal tools for developers, researchers, and enthusiasts alike. One such remarkable addition to the world of language models is Llama 2. While it may not be the absolute marvel of language models, it stands out as an open-source gem. 

Llama 2, an open-source large language model, opens its doors for both research and commercial use, breaking down barriers to innovation and creativity. It comprises a range of pre-trained and fine-tuned generative text models, varying in scale from 7 billion to a staggering 70 billion parameters.

 

Read more about – > Llama 2 fine-tuning

 

Among these, the Llama-2-Chat models, optimized for dialogue, shine as they outperform open-source chat models across various benchmarks. In fact, their helpfulness and safety evaluations rival some popular closed-source models like ChatGPT and PaLM. 

In this blog, we will exploring its training process, improvements over its predecessor, and ways to harness its potential.

 

 

If you want to use it in your projects, this guide will get you started.

So, let us embark on this journey together as we unveil the world of Llama 2 and discover how it can elevate your AI (Artificial Intelligence) endeavors. 

 

Llama 2: The evolution and enhanced features 

 

It represents a significant leap forward from its predecessor, Llama 1, which garnered immense attention and demand from researchers worldwide. With over 100,000 requests for access, the research community demonstrated its appetite for powerful language models.

Building upon this foundation, Llama 2 emerges as the next generation offering from Meta, succeeding its predecessor, Llama 1. Unlike Llama 1, which was released under a non-commercial license for research purposes, it takes a giant stride by making itself available freely for both research and commercial applications. 

 Large language model bootcamp

This second-generation model comes with notable enhancements, including pre-trained versions with parameter sizes of 7 billion, 13 billion, and a staggering 70 billion. Llama 2’s training data has been expanded, encompassing 40% more information, all while boasting double the context length compared to Llama 1, with a context length of 4,096 tokens.

 

Notably, the Llama-2 chat models, tailored for dialogue applications, have been fine-tuned with the assistance of over 1 million new human annotations. As we delve deeper, we will explore its capabilities and the numerous ways to access this remarkable language model. 

Llama2_Intro_Meta
Source: https://ai.meta.com/llama/ 

 

Exploring your path to Llama 2: Six access methods you must learn 

Accessing the power of it is easier than you might think, thanks to its open-source nature. Whether you are a researcher, developer, or simply curious, here are six ways to get your hands on the Llama 2 model right now: 

 

Unlocking_Llama2_six access methods
Understanding Llama2, Six Access Methods

 

 

Download Llama 2 Model 

Since Llama 2 large language model is open-source, you can freely install it on your desktop and start using it. For this, you will need to complete a few simple steps. 

  • First, head to Meta AI’s official Llama 2 download webpage and fill in the requested information. Make sure you select the right model you plan on utilizing. 
Llama2_Download_Request_Form
Llama2 Download Request Form

 

  • Upon submitting your download request, you can expect to encounter the following page. You will receive an installation email from Meta with more information regarding the download. 

 

Llama2_Download_Request_Received
Llama2_Download_Request_Received

 

  • Once the email has been received, you can proceed with the installation by adhering to the instructions detailed within the email. To begin, the initial step entails accessing the Llama repository on GitHub.  
Get_Started_with_Llama2_Email
Get_Started_with_Llama2_Email

 

  • Download the code and extract the ZIP file to your desktop. Subsequently, proceed by adhering to the instructions outlined in the “Readme” document to start using all available models. 

 

Learn to build custom large language model applications today!                                                

 

Its models are also available in the Hugging Face organization of Llama 2 from Meta. All the available models are accessible there as well. To use these models from Hugging Face, we still need to submit a download request to Meta, and additionally, we need to fill out a form to enable the use of Llama 2 in Hugging Face.

To access its models on Hugging Face, follow these steps:

 

Meta_Llama2_Organization_HuggingFace
Meta Llama2 Organization HuggingFace

 

  • You can see a “Models” tab on the page which lists all the available models. 
Llama2_HuggingFace_Models
Llama2_HuggingFace_Models

 

Access_Llama2_HuggingFace
Access Llama2 HuggingFace

 

 

  • In the Access Llama 2 on Hugging Face card enter the email you used to send out the download request. 

Note: Please ensure that the email you use on Hugging Face matches the one you used to request Llama 2 download permission from Meta. 

 

Utilize the quantized model from Hugging Face 

In addition to the models from the official Meta Llama 2 organization, there are some quantized models also available on Hugging Face. 

If you search for Llama in the Hugging Face search bar. You will see a list of models available in Hugging Face. You can see that models from meta-llama the official organization are available but there are other models also available.

These models are the quantized version of the same Llama 2 models. Like the model, TheBloke/Llama-2-7b-Chat-GGUF contains GGUF format model files for Meta Llama 2’s Llama 2 7B Chat. 

 

Quantized_Llama2-7b
Quantized_Llama2-7b

 

 

The key advantage of these compressed models lies in their accessibility. They are open-source and do not necessitate users to request downloads from either Meta or Hugging Face. Although they are not the complete, original models, these quantized versions allow users to harness the capabilities of the model with reduced computational requirements. 

 

 

 

Deploy Llama 2 on Microsoft Azure 

Microsoft and Meta have strengthened their partnership, designating Microsoft as the preferred partner for Llama 2. This collaboration brings Llama 2 into the Azure AI model catalog, granting developers using Microsoft Azure the capability to seamlessly integrate and utilize this powerful language model. 

 

Azure ML Model Catalog
Azure ML Model Catalog

 

Within the Azure model catalog, you can effortlessly locate the Llama 2 model developed by Meta. Microsoft Azure simplifies the fine-tuning of Llama 2, offering both UI-based and code-based methods to customize the model according to your requirements. Furthermore, you can assess the model’s performance with your test data to ascertain its suitability for your unique use case. 

 

Harness Llama 2 as a cloud-based API 

Another avenue to tap into the capabilities of the Llama 2 model is through the deployment of Llama 2 models on platforms such as Hugging Face and Replicate, transforming it into a cloud API. By leveraging the Hugging Face Inference Endpoint, you can establish an accessible endpoint for your Llama 2 model hosted on Hugging Face, facilitating its utilization. 

Hugging Face Inference Endpoint
Hugging Face Inference Endpoint

 

Additionally, it is conveniently accessible through Replicate, presenting a streamlined method for deploying and employing the model via API. This approach alleviates worries about the availability of GPU computing power, whether in the context of development or testing.

It enables the fine-tuning and operation of models in a cloud environment, eliminating the need for dedicated GPU setups. Serving as a cloud API, it simplifies the integration process for applications developed on a wide range of technologies. 

 

Replicate_Llama2
Replicate_Llama2

Online Interactions with Llama 2 

Experience its capabilities online through platforms like llama2.ai where you can freely engage with different models. Customize your interactions by adjusting parameters such as system prompt, max token, and randomness, offering a user-friendly gateway to explore the model’s creative AI potential.

This demo provides a non-technical audience with the opportunity to submit queries and toggle between chat modes, simplifying the experience of interacting with Llama 2’s generative abilities.  

 

Llama2_Online
Llama2_Online

Offline Llama 2 Interaction with LM Studio 

With LM Studio, you have the power to run LLMs (Large Language Models) offline on your laptop, employ models through an intuitive in-app Chat UI or compatible local servers, access model files from Hugging Face repositories, and discover exciting new LLMs right from the app’s homepage. 

LM_Studio_Llama2

LM_Studio_Llama2

LM Studio empowers you to engage with Llama 2 models offline. Here is how it works:  

  • Once installed, search for your desired Llama 2 model, such as Llama 2 7b. You will find a comprehensive list of repositories and quantized models on Hugging Face. Select your preferred repository and initiate the model download by clicking the link on the right. Monitor the download progress at the bottom of the screen. 

 

LM_Studio_Llama2-7b
LM_Studio_Llama2-7b

 

  • After the model is downloaded, click the AI Chat icon, select your model, and start a conversation with it. LM Studio offers a seamless offline experience, enabling you to explore the potential of Llama 2 models with ease. 
LM Studio Llama2 Inference
LM Studio Llama2 Inference

 

Explore Llama 2 now!

In summary, this blog has guided you on an exploration of an open-source language model.

We analyzed its development, pointed out its unique features, and gave a detailed overview of six methods to use it. These methods are suitable for developers, researchers, and anyone interested in their potential.

Armed with this understanding, you are now well-equipped to unlock the capabilities of Llama 2 for your individual AI initiatives and pursuits. 

October 25, 2023

In this blog, we delve into Large Language Model Evaluation and Tracing with LangSmith, emphasizing their pivotal role in ensuring application reliability and performance.

You’ll learn to set up LangSmith, connect it with LangChain, and master the process of precise tracing and evaluation, equipping you with the tools to optimize your Large Language Model applications and bring them to production. Discover the key to unlock your model’s full potential.

LLM evaluation and tracing with LangSmith

 

Whether you’re an experienced developer or just starting your journey, LangSmith’s private beta provides a valuable tool for your toolkit. 

Understanding the significance of evaluation and tracing is key to improving Large Language Model applications, ensuring the reliability, correctness, and performance of your models. This is a critical step in the development process, particularly if you’re working towards bringing your LLM application to production. 

LangSmith and LangChain in LLM application

To working on Large Language Models (LLMs), LangChain and LangSmith stand as key pillars for developers and AI enthusiasts.

LangChain simplifies the integration of powerful LLMs into applications, streamlining data access, and offering flexibility through concepts like “Chains” and “Agents.” It bridges the gap between these models and external data sources, enabling the creation of robust natural language processing applications.

LangSmith, developed by LangChain, takes LLM application development to the next level. It aids in debugging, monitoring, and evaluating LLM-based applications, with features like logging runs, visualizing components, and facilitating collaboration. It ensures the reliability and efficiency of your LLM applications.

These two tools together form a dynamic duo, unleashing the true potential of large language models in application development. In the upcoming sections, we’ll delve deeper into the mechanics, showcasing how they can elevate your LLM projects to new heights.

 

Large language model bootcamp

Quick start to LangSmith

Prerequisites 

Please note that LangSmith is currently in a private beta phase, so we’ll show you how to join the waitlist. Once LangSmith releases new invites, you’ll be at the forefront of this innovative platform. 

Sign up for an account here

welcome to LangSmith

 

Configuring LangSmith with LangChain 

Configuring LangSmith alongside LangChain is a straightforward procedure. It merely involves a few simple steps to establish LangSmith and start utilizing it for tracing and evaluation. 

 

Read more about LangChain in detail

 

To initiate your journey, follow the sequential steps provided below: 

  • Begin by creating a LangSmith account, as outlined in the prerequisites 
  • In your working folder, create .env file containing essential environment variables. Although initial placeholders are provided, these will be replaced in subsequent steps: 

 

 

  • Substitute the placeholder <your-openai-api-key> with your OpenAI API key obtained from OpenAI. 
  • For LangChain API key, navigate to settings page on LangSmith, generate the key and replace the placeholder. 

 

LangSmith-Create API key- 1

 

  • Return to the home page and create a project with a suitable name. Subsequently, copy the project name and update the placeholder. 

 

LangSmith - Project 2

  • Install it and any other necessary dependencies with the following command: 

 

 

 

  • Execute the provided example code to initiate the process: 

 

 

  • After running the code, return to the LangSmith home page, and access the project you just created. 

Getting started with LangSmith 3 

 

  • Within the “Traces” section, you will find the run that was recently executed. Click on it to access detailed trace information. 

Getting started with LangSmith 4

Congratulations, your initial run is now visible and traceable within LangSmith! 

Scenario # 01: LLM Tracing 

What is a trace? 

A ‘Run’ signifies a solitary instance of a task or operation within your LLM application. This could be anything from a single call to an LLM, chain, or agent. 

 

 

A ‘Trace’ encompasses an arrangement of runs structured in a hierarchical or interconnected manner. The highest-level run in a trace, known as the ‘Root Run,’ is the one directly triggered by the user or application. The root run is designated with an execution order of 1, indicating the order in which it was initiated within the trace when considered as a sequence. 

Learn to build LLM applications

 

Examples of traces 

We’ve already examined a straightforward LLM Call trace, where we observed the input provided to the large language model and the resulting output. In this uncomplicated case, a single run was evident, devoid of any hierarchical or multiple run structures.  

Now, let’s delve further by tracing LangChain chain and agent to uncover deeper insights into their operations. 

Trace a sequential chain 

In this instance, we explore the tracing of a sequential chain within LangChain, a foundational chain of this platform. Sequential chains enable the connection of multiple chains, creating complex pipelines for specific scenarios. Detailed information on this can be found here. 

Let’s run this example of sequential chain and see what we get in the trace. 

 

 

 

Upon executing the code for this sequential chain and returning to our project, a new trace, ‘SimpleSequentialChain,’ becomes visible. 

 

LangSmith - ChatOpenAI 5  

 

Upon examination, this trace reveals a collection of LLM calls, featuring two distinct LLM call runs within its hierarchy. 

 

LangSmith - Sequential Chain 6

 

This delineation of execution order becomes apparent; in our example, the initial run entails extracting a title and constructing a synopsis, as displayed in the provided screenshot. 

LangSmith - ChatOpenAI 7

Subsequently, the second run utilizes the synopsis and the output from the first run to generate a review. 

 

 

LangSmith - ChatOpenAI 8

This meticulous tracing mechanism grants us the ability to inspect intermediate results, the messages transmitted to the LLM, and the outputs at each step, all while offering insights into token counts and latency measures. Furthermore, the option to filter traces based on various parameters adds an additional layer of customization and control. 

 

Blog | Data Science Dojo

 

 

Trace an agent 

In this segment, we embark on a journey to trace an agent’s inner workings using LangSmith. For those keen to delve deeper into the world of agents, you’ll find comprehensive documentation in LangChain.

To provide a brief overview, we’ve engineered a ZeroShotAgent, equipping it with tools like DuckDuckGo search and paraphrasing capabilities. The agent interacts with user queries, employing these tools in a ReAct(Reason + Act) manner to generate response. 

Here is the code for agent: 

 

 

 

By tracing the agent’s actions, we gain insights into the sequence and tools utilized by the agent, as well as the intermediate outputs it produces. This tracing capability proves invaluable for agent design and debugging, allowing us to identify and resolve errors efficiently.

 

LangSmith - Agent executor 9

 

The trace reveals that the agent initiates with an LLM call, proceeds to search for DuckDuckGo Results Json, engages the paraphraser, and subsequently executes two additional LLM calls to generate responses, which in our case are the suggested blog topics. 

These traces underscore the critical role tracing plays in debugging and designing effective LLM applications. It’s important to note that all this information is meticulously logged in LangSmith, offering a treasure trove of insights for various applications, which we’ll briefly explore in subsequent sections. 

 

Sharing your trace 

LangSmith simplifies the process of sharing the logged runs. This feature facilitates easy publishing and replication of your work. For example, if you encounter a bug or unexpected output under specific conditions, you can share it with your team or create an issue on LangChain for collaborative troubleshooting.

By simply clicking the share option located at the top right corner of the page, you can effortlessly distribute your run for analysis and resolution 

 

LangSmith - Agent executor 10

 

LangSmith Run shared 11 

 

Scenario # 02: Testing and evaluation 

Why is testing and evaluation essential for LLMs? 

The development of high-quality, production-grade Large Language Model (LLM) applications is a complex task fraught with challenges, including: 

  • Non-deterministic Outputs: LLM models operate probabilistically, often yielding varying outputs for the same input prompt. This unpredictability persists even when utilizing a temperature setting of 0, as model weights are not static over time. 
  • API Opacity: Models underpinning APIs undergo changes and updates, making it imperative to assess their evolving behavior. 
  • Security Concerns: LLMs are susceptible to prompt injections, posing potential security risks. 
  • Latency Requirements: Many applications demand swift response times. 

These challenges underscore the critical need for rigorous testing and evaluation in the development of LLM applications. 

Step-by-step LLM evaluation process 

1. Define an LLM chain 

Begin by defining an LLM and creating a simple LLM chain aimed at generating concise responses to specific queries. This LLM will serve as the subject of evaluation and testing. 

 

 

2. Create a dataset 

Generate a compact dataset comprising question-and-answer pairs related to computer science abbreviations and terms. This data set, containing both questions and their corresponding answers, will be used to evaluate and test the model. 

 

 

 

After executing the code, navigate to LangSmith. Within the “Datasets & Testing” section, you’ll find the dataset you’ve created. By expanding it under “examples,” you’ll encounter the six specific examples you’ve defined for evaluation.  

 

 

LangSmith - Datasets and testing 13 

 

3. Evaluation 

For our evaluations, we’ll make use of the LangChain evaluator, specifically focusing on the ‘Correctness: QA evaluation.’ QA evaluators play a vital role in assessing the accuracy of responses to user queries, especially when you have a dataset with reference labels or context documents. Our approach incorporates all three QA evaluators: 

  • “context_qa”: This evaluator directs the LLM chain to utilize reference “context” (supplied through example outputs) to ascertain correctness. 
  • “qa”: It prompts an LLMChain to directly appraise a response as either “correct” or “incorrect,” based on the reference answer. 
  • “cot_qa”: This evaluator closely resembles “context_qa” but introduces a chain of thought “reasoning” before delivering a final verdict. This approach generally leads to responses that align more closely with human judgments, albeit with a slightly increased token and runtime cost. 

Below is the code to kick start the evaluation on the dataset. 

 

 

 

4. Reviewing evaluation outcomes 

Upon completing the evaluation, LangSmith provides a platform to examine the results. Navigate to the “Dataset & Testing” section, select the dataset used for the evaluation, and access “Test Runs.” You’ll find the designated Test Run Name and feedback from the evaluator. 

By clicking on the Test Run Name, you can delve deeper, inspect feedback for individual examples, and view side-by-side comparisons. Clicking on any reference example reveals detailed information. 

 

LangSmith traces 14

 

For instance, the first example received a perfect score of 1 from all three evaluators. The generated and expected outputs are presented side by side, accompanied by feedback and comments from the evaluator. 

 

 

LangSmith - Run 15

 

 

 

 

However, in a different example, one evaluator issued a score of 1, while the other two scored it as 0. Upon closer examination, it becomes apparent that there exists a disparity between the generated and expected outputs 

LangSmith Run - 16

LLM chain LangSmith - 17

 

 

The “cot-qa” evaluator assigned a score of 1, and further exploration of the comments reveals that, although the generated output was correct, discrepancies in the dataset contextually influenced the evaluation. It’s worth noting that the “cot-qa” evaluator spotted this, demonstrating its ability to notice context-related subtleties that other evaluators might miss. 

Run - LangSmith 18

 

Varied evaluation choices (Delve deeper) 

The evaluator showcased in the previous example is but one of several available within LangSmith. Each option serves specific purposes and holds its unique value. For a detailed understanding of each evaluator’s specific functions and to explore illustrative examples, we encourage you to explore LangChain Evaluators where in-depth coverage of these available options is provided. 

 

Implement the power of tracing and evaluation with LangSmith 

In summary, our journey through LangSmith has underscored the critical importance of evaluating and tracing Large Language Model applications. These processes are the cornerstone of reliability and high performance, ensuring that your models meet rigorous standards. 

With LangSmith, we’ve explored the power of precise tracing and evaluation, empowering you to optimize your models confidently. As you continue your exploration, remember that your LLM applications hold limitless potential, and LangSmith is your guiding light on this path of discovery. Thank you for joining us on this transformative journey through the world of LLM Evaluation and Tracing with LangSmith. 

October 7, 2023