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3 frameworks to integrate knowledge graphs and LLMs

March 28, 2024

Knowledge graphs and LLMs are the building blocks of the most recent advancements happening in the world of artificial intelligence (AI). Combining knowledge graphs (KGs) and LLMs produces a system that has access to a vast network of factual information and can understand complex language.

The system has the potential to use this accessibility to answer questions, generate textual outputs, and engage with other NLP tasks. This blog aims to explore the potential of integrating knowledge graphs and LLMs, navigating through the promise of revolutionizing AI.

Introducing knowledge graphs and LLMs

Before we understand the impact and methods of integrating KGs and LLMs, let’s visit the definition of the two concepts.

What are knowledge graphs (KGs)?

They are a visual web of information that focuses on connecting factual data in a meaningful manner. Each set of data is represented as a node with edges building connections between them. This representational storage of data allows a computer to recognize information and relationships between the data points.

KGs organize data to highlight connections and new relationships in a dataset. Moreover, it enabled improved search results as knowledge graphs integrate the contextual information to provide more relevant results.


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What are large language models (LLMs)?

LLMs are a powerful tool within the world of AI using deep learning techniques for general-purpose language generation and other natural language processing (NLP) tasks. They train on massive amounts of textual data to produce human-quality texts.

Large language models have revolutionized human-computer interactions with the potential for further advancements. However, LLMs are limited in the factual grounding of their results. It makes LLMs able to produce high-quality and grammatically accurate results that can be factually inaccurate.


knowledge graphs and LLMs
An overview of knowledge graphs and LLMs – Source: arXiv


Combining KGs and LLMs

Within the world of AI and NLP, integrating the concepts of KGs and LLMs has the potential to open up new avenues of exploration. While knowledge graphs cannot understand language, they are good at storing factual data. Unlike KGs, LLMs excel in language understanding but lack factual grounding.

Combining the two entities brings forward a solution that addresses the weaknesses of both. The strengths of KGs and LLMs cover each concept’s limitations, producing more accurate and better-represented results.

Frameworks to combine KGs and LLMs

It is one thing to talk about combining knowledge graphs and large language models, implementing the idea requires planning and research. So far, researchers have explored three different frameworks aiming to integrate KGs and LLMs for enhanced outputs.

In this section, we will explore these three frameworks that are published as a paper in IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering.


Frameworks for integrating KGs and LLMs
Frameworks for integrating KGs and LLMs – Source: arXiv


KG-enhanced LLMs

This framework focuses on using knowledge graphs for training LLMs. The factual knowledge and relationship links in the KGs become accessible to the LLMs in addition to the traditional textual data during the training phase. A LLM can then learn from the information available in KGs.

As a result, LLMs can get a boost in factual accuracy and grounding by incorporating the data from KGs. It will also enable the models to fact-check the outputs and produce more accurate and informative results.

LLM-augmented KGs

This design shifts the structure of the first framework. Instead of KGs enhancing LLMs, they leverage the reasoning power of large language models to improve knowledge graphs. It makes LLMs smart assistants to improve the output of KGs, curating their information representation.

Moreover, this framework can leverage LLMs to find problems and inconsistencies in information connections of KGs. The high reasoning of LLMs also enables them to infer new relationships in a knowledge graph, enriching its outputs.

This builds a pathway to create more comprehensive and reliable knowledge graphs, benefiting from the reasoning and inference abilities of LLMs.


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Synergized LLMs + KGs

This framework proposes a mutually beneficial relationship between the two AI components. Each entity works to improve the other through a feedback loop. It is designed in the form of a continuous learning cycle between LLMs and KGs.

It can be viewed as a concept that combines the two above-mentioned frameworks into a single design where knowledge graphs enhance language model outputs and LLMs analyze and improve KGs.

It results in a dynamic cycle where KGs and LLMs constantly improve each other. The iterative design of this integration framework leads to a more powerful and intelligent system overall.

While we have looked at the three different frameworks of integration of KGs and LLMs, the synergized LLMs + KGs is the most advanced approach in this field. It promises to unlock the full potential of both entities, supporting the creation of superior AI systems with enhanced reasoning, knowledge representation, and text generation capabilities.


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Future of LLM and KG integration

Combining the powers of knowledge graphs and large language models holds immense potential in various fields. Some plausible possibilities are discussed below.

Educational revolution

With access to knowledge graphs, LLMs can generate personalized educational content for students, encompassing a wide range of subjects and topics. The data can be used to generate interactive lessons, provide detailed feedback, and answer questions with factual accuracy.

Enhancing scientific research

The integrated frameworks provide an ability to analyze vast amounts of scientific data, identify patterns, and even suggest new hypotheses. The combination has the potential to accelerate scientific research across various fields.



Intelligent customer service

With useful knowledge representations of KGs, LLMs can generate personalized and more accurate support. It will also enhance their ability to troubleshoot issues and offer improved recommendations, providing an intelligent customer experience to the users of any enterprise.

Thus, the integration of knowledge graphs and LLMs has the potential to boost the development of AI-powered tasks and transform the field of NLP.

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