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With a broad spectrum of applications, AI is fast becoming a staple in project workflows.

Recent findings from a Capterra survey underscore this trend, revealing that 93% of project managers saw a positive return on investment from AI tools last year, with only a minimal 8% of companies not yet planning to adopt AI technologies.

It is not a question of whether AI will help project managers achieve better results. The numbers are showing that it already has!

Now that artificial intelligence is equipped with generative capabilities, the potential for enhancing project management processes has expanded significantly, promising to revolutionize project outcomes and strategic planning by enhancing efficiency and decision-making capabilities.

In this blog, we will paint a clearer picture of how will generative AI change the current landscape of  AI project management.

The increasing need for AI project management

According to the latest PMI Annual Global Survey, the penetration of AI project management is not just theoretical but increasingly practical:

  • 21% of survey respondents already utilize AI frequently in their project management practices, harnessing its power to streamline operations and enhance decision-making.
  • A staggering 82% of senior leaders believe that AI will significantly impact project management strategies in their organizations, pointing towards a future where AI integration becomes the norm rather than the exception.

These statistics are a clear indicator of the growing reliance on AI in the project management sector, underscoring the need for professionals to adapt and innovate continuously.

As we delve deeper into the use cases of Generative AI, we’ll explore how these technologies are not just supporting but also enhancing the project management landscape.

Core use cases of generative AI in project management

To fully explore and leverage the potential of existing generative AI tools in project management, it’s crucial to evaluate project tasks and deliverables along two primary dimensions: task complexity and the degree of human intervention required.

The complexity of a task can range from low to high, influenced by factors such as the number of variables involved, the need for a nuanced business context, and specific project management expertise.

Concurrently, the degree of human intervention relates directly to the complexity, where more intricate tasks necessitate greater human oversight to achieve the desired outcomes.

Different Ways Generative AI can Help in AI Project Management
Different Ways Generative AI Can Help in Project Management

This dual-dimensional approach helps categorize how GenAI can support project management into three core functionalities: automation, assistance, and augmentation. Each category is tailored to match the complexity and human intervention needed, ensuring that GenAI applications are both effective and contextually appropriate.

Use Cases of Generative AI in ai Project Management
Use Cases of Generative AI in Project Management


In tasks with low complexity and minimal need for human intervention, GenAI excels in automation, efficiently handling routine processes and updates. Automation use cases include:

  1. Generating status reports and financial summaries: GenAI tools automatically compile and generate comprehensive reports detailing project status and financial metrics, drawn from continuous data feeds without manual input. Read more
  2. Auto-populating project management tools: By automating the entry of updates and task statuses in project management software, GenAI tools ensure that project tracking is consistently up-to-date, reducing the administrative burden on project teams.
  3. Scheduling and resource optimization: GenAI can optimize the scheduling of tasks and allocation of resources by analyzing project timelines and resource usage patterns, ensuring optimal project flow without direct human management.
  4. Automated quality control: In settings like manufacturing, AI tools can monitor product quality, detect defects, and manage waste, ensuring standards are met without constant human oversight.

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For medium-complexity tasks where human oversight is still crucial but can be minimized through intelligent support, generative AI can provide useful assistance. This intermediate level includes:

  1. Drafting project documents: GenAI can produce initial drafts of essential documents like project plans, which project managers can then review and refine.
  2. Analyzing project risks: Utilizing historical data and predictive analytics, AI can identify patterns and trends that may pose future risks. By learning from past projects, it can forecast issues before they arise.
  3. Suggesting preventive measures: Once potential risks are identified, AI tools can recommend strategies to mitigate these risks based on successful approaches used in similar past scenarios. This proactive risk management helps in maintaining project timelines and budgets.
  4. Enhanced data analysis for market trends: Generative AI tools can analyze large datasets to extract market trends and customer insights, providing project managers with detailed reports that inform strategic decisions.
  5. Project health monitoring: By continuously analyzing project metrics against performance benchmarks, GenAI can alert managers to potential issues before they escalate, allowing for preemptive management actions.

Resource Allocation: GenAI analyzes performance data and project requirements to recommend resource distribution, optimizing team deployment and workload management.


In high-complexity scenarios where strategic decision-making integrates deep insights from vast data sets, GenAI augments human capabilities by enhancing analysis and foresight. Augmentation use cases involve:

  1. Enhancing scenario planning: Through predictive analytics, GenAI models various project scenarios, providing project managers with foresight and strategic options that anticipate future challenges and opportunities.
  2. Facilitating complex decision-making: GenAI integrates diverse data sources to deliver nuanced insights, aiding project managers in complex decision-making processes that require a comprehensive understanding of multiple project facets.
  3. Creating comprehensive business cases: Leveraging detailed data analysis, GenAI helps formulate robust business cases that encapsulate extensive market analysis, resource evaluations, and strategic alignments, designed for critical stakeholder review.

This structured approach to applying Generative AI in project management, based on task complexity and necessary human intervention, not only maximizes efficiency but also enhances the strategic impact of different projects.

Read more on AI-powered CRMs

Advantages of implementing generative AI in project management

Implementing AI project management brings quantifiable benefits across several key areas:

  • Efficiency: GenAI significantly streamlines project workflows by automating routine tasks such as data entry, scheduling, and report generation. This automation reduces the time required to complete these tasks from hours to minutes, thereby accelerating project timelines and enabling teams to meet their goals faster.
  • Cost reduction: By automating and optimizing various project tasks, GenAI helps in minimizing overhead costs. For instance, the use of AI in resource allocation can reduce underutilization and overallocation, which in turn decreases the financial strain caused by inefficient resource management.
  • Improved accuracy: GenAI tools are equipped with advanced analytics capabilities that can process large datasets with high precision. This leads to more accurate forecasting, risk assessment, and decision-making, reducing the margin of error that can come from human oversight.

Furthermore, GenAI empowers project managers to focus on higher-level, creative, and strategic tasks. By handling the more monotonous or complex data-driven tasks, GenAI frees up human managers to engage in activities that require human intuition, such as stakeholder negotiations, strategic planning, and innovation management, enhancing their contribution to organizational goals.

Explore a hands-on curriculum that helps you build custom LLM applications!

Challenges and considerations of generative AI in project management

While the advantages of GenAI are compelling, several challenges and ethical considerations need to be addressed to fully harness its potential:

  • Data privacy concerns: As GenAI systems require access to vast amounts of data to learn and make predictions, there is an inherent risk related to data privacy and security. Ensuring that these systems comply with global data protection regulations (e.g., GDPR, HIPAA) is crucial.
  • Need for robust training data: The effectiveness of a GenAI system is heavily dependent on the quality and quantity of the training data it receives. Gathering diverse, comprehensive, and unbiased training sets is essential but often challenging and resource-intensive.
  • Managing the human-machine interface: Integrating GenAI tools into existing workflows can be complex, requiring adjustments in team dynamics and workflow processes. Ensuring that these tools are user-friendly and that staff are adequately trained to interact with them is essential for successful implementation.

Read more about the risks of generative AI

Ethical considerations

  • Management of bias: AI systems can inadvertently learn and perpetuate biases present in their training data. It is vital to continually assess and correct these biases to prevent discriminatory practices.
  • Ensuring transparency: AI-driven decisions in project management should be transparent and explainable. This transparency is crucial not only for trust but also for compliance with regulatory requirements.

Addressing these challenges and considerations thoughtfully will be key to successfully integrating GenAI into project management practices, ensuring that its deployment is both effective and responsible.

How generative AI and LLMs work

Upskilling for generative AI proficiency

As generative AI becomes increasingly integral to project management, the need for project managers to adapt and enhance their skills is crucial. To effectively leverage GenAI, project managers should focus on:

  • Understanding AI fundamentals: Start with the basics of AI and machine learning, focusing on how these technologies can be applied to automate tasks, analyze data, and enhance decision-making in project management.
  • Technical training: Engage in technical training that covers AI tools and platforms commonly used in project management. This includes learning how to interact with AI interfaces and understanding the backend mechanics to better integrate these tools with daily project activities.
  • Strategic application: Learn the strategic application of Generative AI in project management by participating in workshops and case study sessions that explore successful AI integration projects.

Embracing a transformative future of AI in project management

AI project management is not just a trend but a transformative shift that enhances project efficiency, accuracy, and outcomes. As these technologies continue to evolve, they offer significant opportunities for project managers to improve traditional practices and drive success in increasingly complex project environments.

Project managers are encouraged to actively explore and integrate AI technologies into their practices. By embracing GenAI, they can enhance their project delivery capabilities, making them more competitive and effective in managing future challenges. This journey requires continuous learning and adaptation, but the rewards—increased efficiency, more strategic insights, and enhanced decision-making—highlight its immense potential.

May 16, 2024

Generative AI is being called the next big thing since the Industrial Revolution.

Every day, a flood of new applications emerges, promising to revolutionize everything from mundane tasks to complex processes.

But how many actually do? How many of these tools become indispensable, and what sets them apart?

It’s one thing to whip up a prototype of a large language model (LLM) application; it’s quite another to build a robust, scalable solution that addresses real-world needs and stands the test of time.

Hereby, the role of project managers is more important than ever! Especially, in the modern world of AI project management.

Throughout a generative AI project management process, project managers face a myriad of challenges and make key decisions that can be both technical, like ensuring data integrity and model accuracy, and non-technical, such as navigating ethical considerations and inference costs.


Large language model bootcamp


In this blog, we aim to provide you with a comprehensive guide to navigating these complexities and building LLM applications that matter.

The generative AI project lifecycle

The generative AI lifecycle is meant to break down the steps required to build generative AI applications.


Gen AI project lifecycle - Ai project management
A glimpse at a typical generative AI project lifecycle


Each phase focuses on critical aspects of project management. By mastering this lifecycle, project managers can effectively steer their generative AI projects to success, ensuring they meet business goals and innovate responsibly in the AI space. Let’s dive deeper into each stage of the process.

Phase 1: Scope

Defining the Use Case: Importance of Clearly Identifying Project Goals and User Needs

The first and perhaps most crucial step in managing a generative AI project is defining the use case. This stage sets the direction for the entire project, acting as the foundation upon which all subsequent decisions are built.

A well-defined use case clarifies what the project aims to achieve and identifies the specific needs of the users. It answers critical questions such as: What problem is the AI solution meant to solve? Who are the end users? What are their expectations?

Understanding these elements is essential because it ensures that the project is driven by real-world needs rather than technological capabilities alone. For instance, a generative AI project aimed at enhancing customer service might focus on creating a chatbot that can handle complex queries with a human-like understanding.

By clearly identifying these objectives, project managers can tailor the AI’s development to meet precise user expectations, thereby increasing the project’s likelihood of success and user acceptance.


How generative AI and LLMs work


Strategies for scope definition and stakeholder alignment

Defining the scope of a generative AI project involves detailed planning and coordination with all stakeholders. This includes technical teams, business units, potential users, and regulatory bodies. Here are key strategies to ensure effective scope definition and stakeholder alignment:

  • Stakeholder workshops: Conduct workshops or meetings with all relevant stakeholders to gather input on project expectations, concerns, and constraints. This collaborative approach helps in understanding different perspectives and defining a scope that accommodates diverse needs.
  • Feasibility studies: Carry out feasibility studies to assess the practical aspects of the project. This includes technological requirements, data availability, legal and ethical considerations, and budget constraints. Feasibility studies help in identifying potential challenges early in the project lifecycle, allowing teams to devise realistic plans or adjust the scope accordingly.
  • Scope documentation: Create detailed documentation of the project scope that includes defined goals, deliverables, timelines, and success criteria. This document should be accessible to all stakeholders and serve as a point of reference throughout the project.
  • Iterative feedback: Implement an iterative feedback mechanism to regularly check in with stakeholders. This process ensures that the project remains aligned with the evolving business goals and user needs, and can adapt to changes effectively.
  • Risk assessment: Include a thorough risk assessment in the scope definition to identify potential risks associated with the project. Addressing these risks early on helps in developing strategies to mitigate them, ensuring the project’s smooth progression.

This phase is not just about planning but about building consensus and ensuring that every stakeholder has a clear understanding of the project’s goals and the path to achieving them. This alignment is crucial for the seamless execution and success of any generative AI initiative.

Phase 2: Select

Model selection: Criteria for choosing between an existing model or training a new one from scratch

Once the project scope is clearly defined, the next critical phase is selecting the appropriate generative AI model. This decision can significantly impact the project’s timeline, cost, and ultimate success. Here are key criteria to consider when deciding whether to adopt an existing model or develop a new one from scratch:


AI project management - model selection
Understanding model selection


  • Project Specificity and Complexity: If the project requires highly specialized knowledge or needs to handle very complex tasks specific to a certain industry (like legal or medical), a custom-built model might be necessary. This is particularly true if existing models do not offer the level of specificity or compliance required.
  • Resource Availability: Evaluate the resources available, including data, computational power, and expertise. Training new models from scratch requires substantial datasets and significant computational resources, which can be expensive and time-consuming. If resources are limited, leveraging pre-trained models that require less intensive training could be more feasible.
  • Time to Market: Consider the project timeline. Using pre-trained models can significantly accelerate development phases, allowing for quicker deployment and faster time to market. Custom models, while potentially more tailored to specific needs, take longer to develop and optimize.
  • Performance and Scalability: Assess the performance benchmarks of existing models against the project’s requirements. Pre-trained models often benefit from extensive training on diverse datasets, offering robustness and scalability that might be challenging to achieve with newly developed models in a reasonable timeframe.
  • Cost-Effectiveness: Analyze the cost implications of each option. While pre-trained models might involve licensing fees, they generally require less financial outlay than the cost of data collection, training, and validation needed to develop a model from scratch.

Finally, if you’ve chosen to proceed with an existing model, you will also have to decide if you’re going to choose an open-source model or a closed-source model. Here is the main difference between the two:


Comparing open-source and closed-source LLMs - AI project management
Comparing open-source and closed-source LLMs


Dig deeper into understanding the comparison of open-source and closed-source LLMs


Phase 3: Adapt and align model

For project managers, this phase involves overseeing a series of iterative adjustments that enhance the model’s functionality, effectiveness, and suitability for the intended application

How to go about adapting and aligning a model

Effective adaptation and alignment of a model generally involve three key strategies: prompt engineering, fine-tuning, and human feedback alignment. Each strategy serves to incrementally improve the model’s performance:

Prompt Engineering

Techniques for Designing Effective Prompts: This involves crafting prompts that guide the AI to produce the desired outputs. Successful prompt engineering requires:

  • Contextual relevance: Ensuring prompts are relevant to the task.
  • Clarity and specificity: Making prompts clear and specific to reduce ambiguity.
  • Experimentation: Trying various prompts to see how changes affect outputs.

Prompt engineering uses existing model capabilities efficiently, enhancing output quality without additional computational resources.




Optimizing Model Parameters: This process adjusts the model’s parameters to better fit project-specific requirements, using methods like: 

  • Low-rank Adaptation (LoRA): Adjusts a fraction of the model’s weights to improve performance, minimizing computational demands. 
  • Prompt Tuning: Adds trainable tokens to model inputs, optimized during training, to refine responses. 

These techniques are particularly valuable for projects with limited computing resources, allowing for enhancements without substantial retraining.

Confused if fine-tuning is a better approach or prompt-engineering? We’ve broken things down for you:


prompting or fine-tuning
An overview of prompting and fine-tuning


Here’s a guide to building high-performing models with fine-tuning, RLHF, and RAG


Human Feedback Alignment

Integrating User Feedback: Incorporating real-world feedback helps refine the model’s outputs, ensuring they remain relevant and accurate. This involves: 

  • Feedback Loops: Regularly updating the model based on user feedback to maintain and enhance relevance and accuracy. 
  • Ethical Considerations: Adjusting outputs to align with ethical standards and contextual appropriateness. 


Rigorous evaluation is crucial after implementing these strategies. This involves: 

  • Using metrics: Employing performance metrics like accuracy and precision, and domain-specific benchmarks for quantitative assessment. 
  • User testing: Conducting tests to qualitatively assess how well the model meets user needs. 
  • Iterative improvement: Using evaluation insights for continuous refinement. 

For project managers, understanding and effectively guiding this phase is key to the project’s success, ensuring the AI model not only functions as intended but also aligns perfectly with business objectives and user expectations.

Phase 4: Application Integration

Transitioning from a well-tuned AI model to a fully integrated application is crucial for the success of any generative AI project.

This phase involves ensuring that the AI model not only functions optimally within a controlled test environment but also performs efficiently in real-world operational settings.

This phase covers model optimization for practical deployment and ensuring integration into existing systems and workflows.

Model Optimization: Techniques for efficient inference

Optimizing a generative AI model for inference ensures it can handle real-time data and user interactions efficiently. Here are several key techniques: 

  • Quantization: Simplifies the model’s computations, reducing the computational load and increasing speed without significantly losing accuracy. 
  • Pruning: Removes unnecessary model weights, making the model faster and more efficient. 
  • Model Distillation: Trains a smaller model to replicate a larger model’s behavior, requiring less computational power. 
  • Hardware-specific Optimizations: Adapt the model to better suit the characteristics of the deployment hardware, enhancing performance. 

Building and deploying applications: Best practices

Successfully integrating a generative AI model into an application involves both technical integration and user experience considerations: 

Technical Integration

  • API Design: Create secure, scalable, and maintainable APIs that allow the model to interact = with other application components. 
  • Data Pipeline Integration: Integrate the model’s data flows effectively with the application’s data systems, accommodating real-time and large-scale data handling. 
  • Performance Monitoring: Set up tools to continuously assess the model’s performance, with alerts for any issues impacting user experience.

User Interface Design

  • User-Centric Approach: Design the UI to make AI interactions intuitive and straightforward. 
  • Feedback Mechanisms: Incorporate user feedback features to refine the model continuously. 
  • Accessibility and Inclusivity: Ensure the application is accessible to all users, enhancing acceptance and usability.

Deployment Strategies 

  • Gradual Rollout: Begin with a limited user base and scale up after initial refinements. 
  • A/B Testing: Compare different model versions to identify the best performer under real-world conditions. 

By focusing on these areas, project managers can ensure that the generative AI model is not only integrated into the application architecture effectively but also provides a positive and engaging user experience. This phase is critical for transitioning from a developmental model to a live application that meets business objectives and exceeds user expectations.


Explore a hands-on curriculum that helps you build custom LLM applications!


Ethical considerations and compliance for AI project management

Ethical considerations are crucial in the management of generative AI projects, given the potential impact these technologies have on individuals and society. Project managers play a key role in ensuring these ethical concerns are addressed throughout the project lifecycle:

Bias Mitigation

AI systems can inadvertently perpetuate or amplify biases present in their training data. Project managers must work closely with data scientists to ensure diverse datasets are used for training and testing the models. Implementing regular audits and bias checks during model training and after deployment is essential.


Maintaining transparency in AI operations helps build trust and credibility. This involves clear communication about how AI models make decisions and their limitations. Project managers should ensure that documentation and reporting practices are robust, providing stakeholders with insight into AI processes and outcomes.


Explore the risks of LLMs and best practices to overcome them


Navigating Compliance with Data Privacy Laws and Other Regulations

Compliance with legal and regulatory requirements is another critical aspect managed by project managers in AI projects:

Data Privacy

Generative AI often processes large volumes of personal data. Project managers must ensure that the project complies with data protection laws such as GDPR in Europe, CCPA in California, or other relevant regulations. This includes securing data, managing consent where necessary, and ensuring data is used ethically.

Regulatory Compliance

Depending on the industry and region, AI applications may be subject to specific regulations. Project managers must stay informed about these regulations and ensure the project adheres to them. This might involve engaging with legal experts and regulatory bodies to navigate complex legal landscapes effectively.

Optimizing generative AI project management processes

Managing generative AI projects requires a mix of strong technical understanding and solid project management skills. As project managers navigate from initial planning through to integrating AI into business processes, they play a critical role in guiding these complex projects to success. 

In managing these projects, it’s essential for project managers to continually update their knowledge of new AI developments and maintain a clear line of communication with all stakeholders. This ensures that every phase, from design to deployment, aligns with the project’s goals and complies with ethical standards and regulations.

May 15, 2024

In recent years, the landscape of artificial intelligence has been transformed by the development of large language models like GPT-3 and BERT, renowned for their impressive capabilities and wide-ranging applications.

However, alongside these giants, a new category of AI tools is making waves—the small language models (SLMs). These models, such as LLaMA 3, Phi 3, Mistral 7B, and Gemma, offer a potent combination of advanced AI capabilities with significantly reduced computational demands.

Why are Small Language Models Needed?

This shift towards smaller, more efficient models is driven by the need for accessibility, cost-effectiveness, and the democratization of AI technology.

Small language models require less hardware, lower energy consumption, and offer faster deployment, making them ideal for startups, academic researchers, and businesses that do not possess the immense resources often associated with big tech companies.

Moreover, their size does not merely signify a reduction in scale but also an increase in adaptability and ease of integration across various platforms and applications.

Benefits of Small Language Models SLMs | Phi 3

How Small Language Models Excel with Fewer Parameters?

Several factors explain why smaller language models can perform effectively with fewer parameters.

Primarily, advanced training techniques play a crucial role. Methods like transfer learning enable these models to build on pre-existing knowledge bases, enhancing their adaptability and efficiency for specialized tasks.

For example, knowledge distillation from large language models to small language models can achieve comparable performance while significantly reducing the need for computational power.

Moreover, smaller models often focus on niche applications. By concentrating their training on targeted datasets, these models are custom-built for specific functions or industries, enhancing their effectiveness in those particular contexts.

For instance, a small language model trained exclusively on medical data could potentially surpass a general-purpose large model in understanding medical jargon and delivering accurate diagnoses.

However, it’s important to note that the success of a small language model depends heavily on its training regimen, fine-tuning, and the specific tasks it is designed to perform. Therefore, while small models may excel in certain areas, they might not always be the optimal choice for every situation.

Best Small Langauge Models in 2024

Leading Small Language Models | Llama 3 | phi-3
Leading Small Language Models (SLMs)

1. Llama 3 by Meta

LLaMA 3 is an open-source language model developed by Meta. It’s part of Meta’s broader strategy to empower more extensive and responsible AI usage by providing the community with tools that are both powerful and adaptable. This model builds upon the success of its predecessors by incorporating advanced training methods and architecture optimizations that enhance its performance across various tasks such as translation, dialogue generation, and complex reasoning.

Performance and Innovation

Meta’s LLaMA 3 has been trained on significantly larger datasets compared to earlier versions, utilizing custom-built GPU clusters that enable it to process vast amounts of data efficiently.

This extensive training has equipped LLaMA 3 with an improved understanding of language nuances and the ability to handle multi-step reasoning tasks more effectively. The model is particularly noted for its enhanced capabilities in generating more aligned and diverse responses, making it a robust tool for developers aiming to create sophisticated AI-driven applications.

Llama 3 pre-trained model performance
Llama 3 pre-trained model performance – Source: Meta

Why LLaMA 3 Matters

The significance of LLaMA 3 lies in its accessibility and versatility. Being open-source, it democratizes access to state-of-the-art AI technology, allowing a broader range of users to experiment and develop applications. This model is crucial for promoting innovation in AI, providing a platform that supports both foundational and advanced AI research. By offering an instruction-tuned version of the model, Meta ensures that developers can fine-tune LLaMA 3 to specific applications, enhancing both performance and relevance to particular domains.


Learn more about Meta’s Llama 3 


2. Phi 3 By Microsoft

Phi-3 is a pioneering series of SLMs developed by Microsoft, emphasizing high capability and cost-efficiency. As part of Microsoft’s ongoing commitment to accessible AI, Phi-3 models are designed to provide powerful AI solutions that are not only advanced but also more affordable and efficient for a wide range of applications.

These models are part of an open AI initiative, meaning they are accessible to the public and can be integrated and deployed in various environments, from cloud-based platforms like Microsoft Azure AI Studio to local setups on personal computing devices.

Performance and Significance

The Phi 3 models stand out for their exceptional performance, surpassing both similar and larger-sized models in tasks involving language processing, coding, and mathematical reasoning.

Notably, the Phi-3-mini, a 3.8 billion parameter model within this family, is available in versions that handle up to 128,000 tokens of context—setting a new standard for flexibility in processing extensive text data with minimal quality compromise.

Microsoft has optimized Phi 3 for diverse computing environments, supporting deployment across GPUs, CPUs, and mobile platforms, which is a testament to its versatility.

Additionally, these models integrate seamlessly with other Microsoft technologies, such as ONNX Runtime for performance optimization and Windows DirectML for broad compatibility across Windows devices.

Phi 3 family comparison gemma 7b mistral 7b mixtral llama 3
Phi-3 family comparison with Gemma 7b, Mistral 7b, Mixtral 8x7b, Llama 3 – Source: Microsoft

Why Does Phi 3 Matter?

The development of Phi 3 reflects a significant advancement in AI safety and ethical AI deployment. Microsoft has aligned the development of these models with its Responsible AI Standard, ensuring that they adhere to principles of fairness, transparency, and security, making them not just powerful but also trustworthy tools for developers.

3. Mixtral 8x7B by Mistral AI

Mixtral, developed by Mistral AI, is a groundbreaking model known as a Sparse Mixture of Experts (SMoE). It represents a significant shift in AI model architecture by focusing on both performance efficiency and open accessibility.

Mistral AI, known for its foundation in open technology, has designed Mixtral to be a decoder-only model, where a router network selectively engages different groups of parameters, or “experts,” to process data.

This approach not only makes Mixtral highly efficient but also adaptable to a variety of tasks without requiring the computational power typically associated with large models.


Explore the showdown of 7B LLMs – Mistral 7B vs Llama-2 7B

Performance and Innovations

Mixtral excels in processing large contexts up to 32k tokens and supports multiple languages including English, French, Italian, German, and Spanish.

It has demonstrated strong capabilities in code generation and can be fine-tuned to follow instructions precisely, achieving high scores on benchmarks like the MT-Bench.

What sets Mixtral apart is its efficiency—despite having a total parameter count of 46.7 billion, it effectively utilizes only about 12.9 billion per token, aligning it with much smaller models in terms of computational cost and speed.

Why Does Mixtral Matter?

The significance of Mixtral lies in its open-source nature and its licensing under Apache 2.0, which encourages widespread use and adaptation by the developer community.

This model is not only a technological innovation but also a strategic move to foster more collaborative and transparent AI development. By making high-performance AI more accessible and less resource-intensive, Mixtral is paving the way for broader, more equitable use of advanced AI technologies.

Mixtral’s architecture represents a step towards more sustainable AI practices by reducing the energy and computational costs typically associated with large models. This makes it not only a powerful tool for developers but also a more environmentally conscious choice in the AI landscape.

Large Language Models Bootcamp | LLM

4. Gemma by Google

Gemma is a new generation of open models introduced by Google, designed with the core philosophy of responsible AI development. Developed by Google DeepMind along with other teams at Google, Gemma leverages the foundational research and technology that also gave rise to the Gemini models.

Technical Details and Availability

Gemma models are structured to be lightweight and state-of-the-art, ensuring they are accessible and functional across various computing environments—from mobile devices to cloud-based systems.

Google has released two main versions of Gemma: a 2 billion parameter model and a 7 billion parameter model. Each of these comes in both pre-trained and instruction-tuned variants to cater to different developer needs and application scenarios.

Gemma models are freely available and supported by tools that encourage innovation, collaboration, and responsible usage.

Why Does Gemma Matter?

Gemma models are significant not just for their technical robustness but for their role in democratizing AI technology. By providing state-of-the-art capabilities in an open model format, Google facilitates a broader adoption and innovation in AI, allowing developers and researchers worldwide to build advanced applications without the high costs typically associated with large models.

Moreover, Gemma models are designed to be adaptable, allowing users to tune them for specialized tasks, which can lead to more efficient and targeted AI solutions

Explore a hands-on curriculum that helps you build custom LLM applications!

5. OpenELM Family by Apple

OpenELM is a family of small language models developed by Apple. OpenELM models are particularly appealing for applications where resource efficiency is critical. OpenELM is open-source, offering transparency and the opportunity for the wider research community to modify and adapt the models as needed.

Performance and Capabilities

Despite their smaller size and open-source nature, it’s important to note that OpenELM models do not necessarily match the top-tier performance of some larger, more closed-source models. They achieve moderate accuracy levels across various benchmarks but may lag behind in more complex or nuanced tasks. For example, while OpenELM shows improved performance compared to similar models like OLMo in terms of accuracy, the improvement is moderate.

Why Does OpenELM Matter?

OpenELM represents a strategic move by Apple to integrate state-of-the-art generative AI directly into its hardware ecosystem, including laptops and smartphones.

By embedding these efficient models into devices, Apple can potentially offer enhanced on-device AI capabilities without the need to constantly connect to the cloud.

Apple's Open-Source SLMs family | Phi 3
Apple’s Open-Source SLM family

This not only improves functionality in areas with poor connectivity but also aligns with increasing consumer demands for privacy and data security, as processing data locally minimizes the risk of exposure over networks.

Furthermore, embedding OpenELM into Apple’s products could give the company a significant competitive advantage by making their devices smarter and more capable of handling complex AI tasks independently of the cloud.

How generative AI and LLMs work

This can transform user experiences, offering more responsive and personalized AI interactions directly on their devices. The move could set a new standard for privacy in AI, appealing to privacy-conscious consumers and potentially reshaping consumer expectations in the tech industry.

The Future of Small Language Models

As we dive deeper into the capabilities and strategic implementations of small language models, it’s clear that the evolution of AI is leaning heavily towards efficiency and integration. Companies like Apple, Microsoft, and Google are pioneering this shift by embedding advanced AI directly into everyday devices, enhancing user experience while upholding stringent privacy standards.

This approach not only meets the growing consumer demand for powerful, yet private technology solutions but also sets a new paradigm in the competitive landscape of tech companies.

May 7, 2024

Have you ever thought about the leap from “Good to Great” as James Collins describes in his book?

This is precisely what we aim to achieve with large language models (LLMs) today.

We are at a stage where language models are surely competent, but the challenge is to elevate them to excellence.

While there are numerous approaches that are being discussed currently to enhance LLMs, one approach that seems to be very promising is incorporating agentic workflows in LLMs.

Future of LLMs | AI Agents Workflows
Andrew NG Tweet| AI Agents

Let’s dig deeper into what are AI agents, and how can they improve the results generated by LLMs.

What are Agentic Workflows

Agentic workflows are all about making LLMs smarter by integrating them into structured processes. This helps the AI deliver higher-quality results.

Right now, large language models usually operate on a zero-shot mode.

This equates to asking someone to write an 800-word blog on AI agents in one go, without any edits.


It’s not ideal, right?


That’s where AI agents come in. They let the LLM go over the task multiple times, fine-tuning the results each time. This process uses extra tools and smarter decision-making to really leverage what LLMs can do, especially for specific, targeted projects. Read more about AI agents

How AI Agents Enhance Large Language Models

Agent workflows have been proven to dramatically improve the performance of language models. For example, GPT 3.5 observed an increase in coding accuracy from 48.1% to 95.1% when moving from zero-shot prompting to an agent workflow on a coding benchmark.

GPT 3.5 and GPT 4 Performance Increase with AI Agents
Source: DeepLearning.AI

Building Blocks for AI Agents

There is a lot of work going on globally about different strategies to create AI agents. To put the research into perspective, here’s a framework for categorizing design patterns for building agents.

Framework for AI Agentic Workflow for LLMs | LLM Agents
Framework for agentic workflow for LLM Applications


1. Reflection

Reflection refers to a design pattern where an LLM generates an output and then reflects on its creation to identify improvement areas.

This process of self-critique allows the model to automatically provide constructive criticism of its output, much like a human would revise their work after writing a first draft.

Reflection leads to performance gains in AI agents by enabling them to self-criticize and improve through an iterative process.

When an LLM generates an initial output, it can be prompted to reflect on that output by checking for issues related to correctness, style, efficiency, and whatnot.

Reflection in Action

Here’s an example process of how Reflection leads to improved code:

  1. Initially, an LLM receives a prompt to write code for a specific task, X.
  2. Once the code is generated, the LLM reviews its work, assessing the code’s accuracy, style, and efficiency, and provides suggestions for improvements.
  3. The LLM identifies any issues or opportunities for optimization and proposes adjustments based on this evaluation.
  4. The LLM is prompted to refine the code, this time incorporating the insights gained from its own review.
  5. This review and revision cycle continues, with the LLM providing ongoing feedback and making iterative enhancements to the code.


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2. Tool Use

Incorporating different tools in the agenetic workflow allows the language model to call upon various tools for gathering information, taking actions, or manipulating data to accomplish tasks. This pattern extends the functionality of LLMs beyond generating text-based responses, allowing them to interact with external systems and perform more complex operations.

One can argue that some of the current consumer-facing products like ChatGPT are already capitalizing on different tools like web-search. Well, what we are proposing is different and massive. Here’s how:

  • Access to Multiple Tools:

We are talking about AI Agents with the ability to access a variety of tools to perform a broad range of functions, from searching different sources (e.g., web, Wikipedia, arXiv) to interfacing with productivity tools (e.g., email, calendars).

This will allow LLMs to perform more complex tasks, such as managing communications, scheduling meetings, or conducting in-depth research—all in real-time.

Developers can use heuristics to include the most relevant subset of tools in the LLM’s context at each processing step, similar to how retrieval augmented generation (RAG) systems choose subsets of text for contextual relevance.

  • Code Execution

One of the significant challenges with current LLMs is their limited ability to perform accurate computations directly from a trained model.

For instance, asking a typical LLM a math-related query like calculating compound interest might not yield the correct result.

This is where the integration of tools like Python into LLMs becomes invaluable. By allowing LLMs to execute Python code, they can precisely calculate and solve complex mathematical queries.

This capability not only enhances the functionality of LLMs in academic and professional settings but also boosts user trust in their ability to handle technical tasks effectively.

3. Multi-Agent Collaboration

Handling complex tasks can often be too challenging for a single AI agent, much like it would be for an individual person.

This is where multi-agent collaboration becomes crucial. By dividing these complex tasks into smaller, more manageable parts, each AI agent can focus on a specific segment where its expertise can be best utilized.

This approach mirrors how human teams operate, with different specialists taking on different roles within a project. Such collaboration allows for more efficient handling of intricate tasks, ensuring each part is managed by the most suitable agent, thus enhancing overall effectiveness and results.

How different AI agents can perform specialized roles within a single workflow?

In a multi-agent collaboration framework, various specialized agents work together within a single system to efficiently handle complex tasks. Here’s a straightforward breakdown of the process:

  • Role Specialization: Each agent has a specific role based on its expertise. For example, a Product Manager agent might create a Product Requirement Document (PRD), while an Architect agent focuses on technical specifications.
  • Task-Oriented Dialogue: The agents communicate through task-oriented dialogues, initiated by role-specific prompts, to effectively contribute to the project.
  • Memory Stream: A memory stream records all past dialogues, helping agents reference previous interactions for more informed decisions, and maintaining continuity throughout the workflow.
  • Self-Reflection and Feedback: Agents review their decisions and actions, using self-reflection and feedback mechanisms to refine their contributions and ensure alignment with the overall goals.
  • Self-Improvement: Through active teamwork and learning from past projects, agents continuously improve, enhancing the system’s overall effectiveness.

This framework allows for streamlined and effective management of complex tasks by distributing them among specialized LLM agents, each handling aspects they are best suited for.

Such systems not only manage to optimize the execution of subtasks but also do so cost-effectively, scaling to various levels of complexity and broadening the scope of applications that LLMs can address.

Furthermore, the capacity for planning and tool use within the multi-agent framework enriches the solution space, fostering creativity and improved decision-making akin to a well-orchestrated team of specialists.


How generative AI and LLMs work


4. Planning

Planning is a design pattern that empowers large language models to autonomously devise a sequence of steps to achieve complex objectives.

Rather than relying on a single tool or action, planning allows an agent to dynamically determine the necessary steps to accomplish a task, which might not be pre-determined or decomposable into a set of subtasks in advance.

By decomposing a larger task into smaller, manageable subtasks, planning allows for a more systematic approach to problem-solving, leading to potentially higher-quality and more comprehensive outcomes

Impact of  Planning on Outcome Quality

The impact of Planning on outcome quality is multifaceted:

Adaptability: It gives AI agents the flexibility to adapt their strategies on the fly, making them capable of handling unexpected changes or errors in the workflow.
Dynamism: Planning allows agents to dynamically decide on the execution of tasks, which can result in creative and effective solutions to problems that are not immediately obvious.
Autonomy: It enables AI systems to work with minimal human intervention, enhancing efficiency and reducing the time to resolution.

Challenges of Planning

The use of Planning also presents several challenges:

  • Predictability: The autonomous nature of Planning can lead to less predictable results, as the sequence of actions determined by the agent may not always align with human expectations.
  • Complexity: As the complexity of tasks increases, so does the challenge for the LLM to predict precise plans. This necessitates further optimization of LLMs for task planning to handle a broader range of tasks effectively.

Despite these challenges, the field is rapidly evolving, and improvements in planning abilities are expected to enhance the quality of outcomes further while mitigating the associated challenges


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The Future of Agentic Workflows in LLMs

This strategic approach to developing LLM agent through agentic workflows offers a promising path to not just enhancing their performance but also expanding their applicability across various domains.

The ongoing optimization and integration of these workflows are crucial for achieving the high standards of reliability and ethical responsibility required in advanced AI systems.


May 3, 2024

In the not-so-distant future, generative AI is poised to become as essential as the internet itself. This groundbreaking technology vows to transform our society by automating complex tasks within seconds. It also raises the need for you to master prompt engineering. Let’s explore how.

Harnessing generative AI’s potential requires mastering the art of communication with it. Imagine it as a brilliant but clueless individual, waiting for your guidance to deliver astonishing results. This is where prompt engineering steps in as the need of the hour.


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Excited to explore some must-know prompting techniques and master prompt engineering? let’s dig in!


Pro-tip: If you want to pursue a career in prompt engineering, follow this comprehensive roadmap.

What makes prompt engineering critical?

First things first, what makes prompt engineering so important? What difference is it going to make?

The answer awaits:


Importance of prompt engineering
Importance of prompt engineering


How does prompt engineering work?

At the heart of AI’s prowess lies prompt engineering – the compass that steers models towards user-specific excellence. Without it, AI output remains a murky landscape.

There are different types of prompting techniques you can use:


7 types of techniques to master prompt engineering
7 types of prompting techniques to use


Let’s put your knowledge to test before we understand some principles for prompt engineering. Here’s a quick quiz for you to measure your understanding!


Let’s get a deeper outlook on different principles governing prompt engineering:


How generative AI and LLMs work


1. Be clear and specific

The clearer your prompts, the better the model’s results. Here’s how to achieve it.

  • Use delimiters: Delimiters, like square brackets […], angle brackets <…>, triple quotes “””, triple dashes —, and triple backticks “`, help define the structure and context of the desired output.
  • Separate text from the prompt: Clear separation between text and prompt enhances model comprehension. Here’s an example:


master prompt engineering


  • Ask for a structured output: Request answers in formats such as JSON, HTML, XML, etc.


master prompt engineering


2. Give the LLM time to think:

When facing a complex task, models often rush to conclusions. Here’s a better approach:

  • Specify the steps required to complete the task: Provide clear steps


master prompt engineering


  • Instruct the model to seek its own solution before reaching a conclusion: Sometimes, when you ask an LLM to verify if your solution is right or wrong, it simply presents a verdict that is not necessarily correct. To overcome this challenge, you can instruct the model to work out its own solution first.

3. Know the limitations of the model

While LLMs continue to improve, they have limitations. Exercise caution, especially with hypothetical scenarios. When you ask different generative AI models to provide information on hypothetical products or tools, they tend to do so as if they exist.

To illustrate this point, we asked Bard to provide information about a hypothetical toothpaste:


master prompt engineering



Read along to explore the two approaches used for prompting


4. Iterate, Iterate, Iterate

Rarely does a single prompt yield the desired results. Success lies in iterative refinement.

For step-by-step prompting techniques, watch this video tutorial.



The goal: To master prompt engineering


Explore a hands-on curriculum that helps you build custom LLM applications!


All in all, prompt engineering is the key to unlocking the full potential of generative AI. With the right guidance and techniques, you can harness this powerful technology to achieve remarkable results and shape the future of human-machine interaction.

April 15, 2024

AGI (Artificial General Intelligence) refers to a higher level of AI that exhibits intelligence and capabilities on par with or surpassing human intelligence.

AGI systems can perform a wide range of tasks across different domains, including reasoning, planning, learning from experience, and understanding natural language. Unlike narrow AI systems that are designed for specific tasks, AGI systems possess general intelligence and can adapt to new and unfamiliar situations. Read more

While there have been no definitive examples of artificial general intelligence (AGI) to date, a recent paper by Microsoft Research suggests that we may be closer than we think. The new multimodal model released by OpenAI seems to have what they call, ‘sparks of AGI’.


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This means that we cannot completely classify it as AGI. However, it has a lot of capabilities an AGI would have.

Are you confused? Let’s break down things for you. Here are the questions we’ll be answering:

  • What qualities of AGI does GPT-4 possess?
  • Why does GPT-4 exhibit higher general intelligence than previous AI models?

 Let’s answer these questions step-by-step. Buckle up!

What qualities of artificial general intelligence (AGI) does GPT-4 possess?


Here’s a sneak peek into how GPT-4 is different from GPT-3.5


GPT-4 is considered an early spark of AGI due to several important reasons:

1. Performance on novel tasks

GPT-4 can solve novel and challenging tasks that span various domains, often achieving performance at or beyond the human level. Its ability to tackle unfamiliar tasks without specialized training or prompting is an important characteristic of AGI.

Here’s an example of GPT-4 solving a novel task:


GPT-4 solving a novel task
GPT-4 solving a novel task – Source: arXiv


The solution seems to be accurate and solves the problem it was provided.

2. General Intelligence

GPT-4 exhibits more general intelligence than previous AI models. It can solve tasks in various domains without needing special prompting. Its performance is close to a human level and often surpasses prior models. This ability to perform well across a wide range of tasks demonstrates a significant step towards AGI.

Broad capabilities

GPT-4 demonstrates remarkable capabilities in diverse domains, including mathematics, coding, vision, medicine, law, psychology, and more. It showcases a breadth and depth of abilities that are characteristic of advanced intelligence.

Here are some examples of GPT-4 being capable of performing diverse tasks:

  • Data Visualization: In this example, GPT-4 was asked to extract data from the LATEX code and produce a plot in Python based on a conversation with the user. The model extracted the data correctly and responded appropriately to all user requests, manipulating the data into the right format and adapting the visualization.


Data visualization with GPT-4
Data visualization with GPT-4 – Source: arXiv


  • Game development: Given a high-level description of a 3D game, GPT-4 successfully creates a functional game in HTML and JavaScript without any prior training or exposure to similar tasks


Game development with GPT-4
Game development with GPT-4 – Source: arXiv


3. Language mastery

GPT-4’s mastery of language is a distinguishing feature. It can understand and generate human-like text, showcasing fluency, coherence, and creativity. Its language capabilities extend beyond next-word prediction, setting it apart as a more advanced language model.


Language mastery of GPT-4
Language mastery of GPT-4 – Source: arXiv


4. Cognitive traits

GPT-4 exhibits traits associated with intelligence, such as abstraction, comprehension, and understanding of human motives and emotions. It can reason, plan, and learn from experience. These cognitive abilities align with the goals of AGI, highlighting GPT-4’s progress towards this goal.


How generative AI and LLMs work


Here’s an example of GPT-4 trying to solve a realistic scenario of marital struggle, requiring a lot of nuance to navigate.


An example of GPT-4 exhibiting congnitive traits
An example of GPT-4 exhibiting cognitive traits – Source: arXiv


Why does GPT-4 exhibit higher general intelligence than previous AI models?

Some of the features of GPT-4 that contribute to its more general intelligence and task-solving capabilities include:


Reasons for the higher intelligence of GPT-4
Reasons for the higher intelligence of GPT-4


Multimodal information

GPT-4 can manipulate and understand multi-modal information. This is achieved through techniques such as leveraging vector graphics, 3D scenes, and music data in conjunction with natural language prompts. GPT-4 can generate code that compiles into detailed and identifiable images, demonstrating its understanding of visual concepts.

Interdisciplinary composition

The interdisciplinary aspect of GPT-4’s composition refers to its ability to integrate knowledge and insights from different domains. GPT-4 can connect and leverage information from various fields such as mathematics, coding, vision, medicine, law, psychology, and more. This interdisciplinary integration enhances GPT-4’s general intelligence and widens its range of applications.

Extensive training

GPT-4 has been trained on a large corpus of web-text data, allowing it to learn a wide range of knowledge from diverse domains. This extensive training enables GPT-4 to exhibit general intelligence and solve tasks in various domains. Read more


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Contextual understanding

GPT-4 can understand the context of a given input, allowing it to generate more coherent and contextually relevant responses. This contextual understanding enhances its performance in solving tasks across different domains.

Transfer learning

GPT-4 leverages transfer learning, where it applies knowledge learned from one task to another. This enables GPT-4 to adapt its knowledge and skills to different domains and solve tasks without the need for special prompting or explicit instructions.


Read more about the GPT-4 Vision’s use cases


Language processing capabilities

GPT-4’s advanced language processing capabilities contribute to its general intelligence. It can comprehend and generate human-like natural language, allowing for more sophisticated communication and problem-solving.

Reasoning and inference

GPT-4 demonstrates the ability to reason and make inferences based on the information provided. This reasoning ability enables GPT-4 to solve complex problems and tasks that require logical thinking and deduction.

Learning from experience

GPT-4 can learn from experience and refine its performance over time. This learning capability allows GPT-4 to continuously improve its task-solving abilities and adapt to new challenges.

These features collectively contribute to GPT-4’s more general intelligence and its ability to solve tasks in various domains without the need for specialized prompting.



Wrapping it up

It is crucial to understand and explore GPT-4’s limitations, as well as the challenges ahead in advancing towards more comprehensive versions of AGI. Nonetheless, GPT-4’s development holds significant implications for the future of AI research and the societal impact of AGI.

April 5, 2024

Large Language Models are growing smarter, transforming how we interact with technology. Yet, they stumble over a significant quality i.e. accuracy. Often, they provide unreliable information or guess answers to questions they don’t understand—guesses that can be completely wrong. Read more

This issue is a major concern for enterprises looking to leverage LLMs. How do we tackle this problem? Retrieval Augmented Generation (RAG) offers a viable solution, enabling LLMs to access up-to-date, relevant information, and significantly improving their responses.

Tune in to our podcast and dive deep into RAG, fine-tuning, LlamaIndex and LangChain in detail!


Understanding Retrieval Augmented Generation (RAG)

RAG is a framework that retrieves data from external sources and incorporates it into the LLM’s decision-making process. This allows the model to access real-time information and address knowledge gaps. The retrieved data is synthesized with the LLM’s internal training data to generate a response.

Retrieval Augmented Generation (RAG) Pipeline

Read more: RAG and finetuning: A comprehensive guide to understanding the two approaches

The challenge of bringing RAG based LLM applications to production

Prototyping a RAG application is easy, but making it performant, robust, and scalable to a large knowledge corpus is hard.

There are three important steps in a RAG framework i.e. Data Ingestion, Retrieval, and Generation. In this blog, we will be dissecting the challenges encountered based on each stage of the RAG  pipeline specifically from the perspective of production, and then propose relevant solutions. Let’s dig in!

Stage 1: Data Ingestion Pipeline

The ingestion stage is a preparation step for building a RAG pipeline, similar to the data cleaning and preprocessing steps in a machine learning pipeline. Usually, the ingestion stage consists of the following steps:

  • Collect data
  • Chunk data
  • Generate vector embeddings of chunks
  • Store vector embeddings and chunks in a vector database

The efficiency and effectiveness of the data ingestion phase significantly influence the overall performance of the system.

Common Pain Points in Data Ingestion Pipeline

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Challenge 1: Data Extraction:

  • Parsing Complex Data Structures: Extracting data from various types of documents, such as PDFs with embedded tables or images, can be challenging. These complex structures require specialized techniques to extract the relevant information accurately.
  • Handling Unstructured Data: Dealing with unstructured data, such as free-flowing text or natural language, can be difficult.
Proposed solutions
  • Better parsing techniques:Enhancing parsing techniques is key to solving the data extraction challenge in RAG-based LLM applications, enabling more accurate and efficient information extraction from complex data structures like PDFs with embedded tables or images. Llama Parse is a great tool by LlamaIndex that significantly improves data extraction for RAG systems by adeptly parsing complex documents into structured markdown.
  • Chain-of-the-table approach:The chain-of-table approach, as detailed by Wang et al., https://arxiv.org/abs/2401.04398 merges table analysis with step-by-step information extraction strategies. This technique aids in dissecting complex tables to pinpoint and extract specific data segments, enhancing tabular question-answering capabilities in RAG systems.
  • Mix-Self-Consistency:
    Large Language Models (LLMs) can analyze tabular data through two primary methods:

    • Direct prompting for textual reasoning.
    • Program synthesis for symbolic reasoning, utilizing languages like Python or SQL.

    According to the study “Rethinking Tabular Data Understanding with Large Language Models” by Liu and colleagues, LlamaIndex introduced the MixSelfConsistencyQueryEngine. This engine combines outcomes from both textual and symbolic analysis using a self-consistency approach, such as majority voting, to attain state-of-the-art (SoTA) results. Below is an example code snippet. For further information, visit LlamaIndex’s complete notebook.

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Challenge 2: Picking the Right Chunk Size and Chunking Strategy:

  1. Determining the Right Chunk Size: Finding the optimal chunk size for dividing documents into manageable parts is a challenge. Larger chunks may contain more relevant information but can reduce retrieval efficiency and increase processing time. Finding the optimal balance is crucial.
  2. Defining Chunking Strategy: Deciding how to partition the data into chunks requires careful consideration. Depending on the use case, different strategies may be necessary, such as sentence-based or paragraph-based chunking.
Proposed Solutions:
  • Fine Tuning Embedding Models:

Fine-tuning embedding models plays a pivotal role in solving the chunking challenge in RAG pipelines, enhancing both the quality and relevance of contexts retrieved during ingestion.

By incorporating domain-specific knowledge and training on pertinent data, these models excel in preserving context, ensuring chunks maintain their original meaning.

This fine-tuning process aids in identifying the optimal chunk size, striking a balance between comprehensive context capture and efficiency, thus minimizing noise.

Additionally, it significantly curtails hallucinations—erroneous or irrelevant information generation—by honing the model’s ability to accurately identify and extract relevant chunks.

According to experiments conducted by Llama Index, fine-tuning your embedding model can lead to a 5–10% performance increase in retrieval evaluation metrics.

  • Use Case-Dependent Chunking

Use case-dependent chunking tailors the segmentation process to the specific needs and characteristics of the application. Different use cases may require different granularity in data segmentation:

    • Detailed Analysis: Some applications might benefit from very fine-grained chunks to extract detailed information from the data.
    • Broad Overview: Others might need larger chunks that provide a broader context, important for understanding general themes or summaries.
  • Embedding Model-Dependent Chunking

Embedding model-dependent chunking aligns the segmentation strategy with the characteristics of the underlying embedding model used in the RAG framework. Embedding models convert text into numerical representations, and their capacity to capture semantic information varies:

    • Model Capacity: Some models are better at understanding broader contexts, while others excel at capturing specific details. Chunk sizes can be adjusted to match what the model handles best.
    • Semantic Sensitivity: If the embedding model is highly sensitive to semantic nuances, smaller chunks may be beneficial to capture detailed semantics. Conversely, for models that excel at capturing broader contexts, larger chunks might be more appropriate.

Challenge 3: Creating a Robust and Scalable Pipeline:

One of the critical challenges in implementing RAG is creating a robust and scalable pipeline that can effectively handle a large volume of data and continuously index and store it in a vector database. This challenge is of utmost importance as it directly impacts the system’s ability to accommodate user demands and provide accurate, up-to-date information.

  1. Proposed Solutions
  • Building a modular and distributed system:

To build a scalable pipeline for managing billions of text embeddings, a modular and distributed system is crucial. This system separates the pipeline into scalable units for targeted optimization and employs distributed processing for parallel operation efficiency. Horizontal scaling allows the system to expand with demand, supported by an optimized data ingestion process and a capable vector database for large-scale data storage and indexing.

This approach ensures scalability and technical robustness in handling vast amounts of text embeddings.

Stage 2: Retrieval

Retrieval in RAG involves the process of accessing and extracting information from authoritative external knowledge sources, such as databases, documents, and knowledge graphs. If the information is retrieved correctly in the right format, then the answers generated will be correct as well. However, you know the catch. Effective retrieval is a pain, and you can encounter several issues during this important stage.

RAG Pain Paints and Solutions - Retrieval

Common Pain Points in Data Ingestion Pipeline

Challenge 1: Retrieved Data Not in Context

The RAG system can retrieve data that doesn’t qualify to bring relevant context to generate an accurate response. There can be several reasons for this.

  • Missed Top Rank Documents: The system sometimes doesn’t include essential documents that contain the answer in the top results returned by the system’s retrieval component.
  • Incorrect Specificity: Responses may not provide precise information or adequately address the specific context of the user’s query
  • Losing Relevant Context During Reranking: This occurs when documents containing the answer are retrieved from the database but fail to make it into the context for generating an answer.
Proposed Solutions:
  • Query Augmentation: Query augmentation enables RAG to retrieve information that is in context by enhancing the user queries with additional contextual details or modifying them to maximize relevancy. This involves improving the phrasing, adding company-specific context, and generating sub-questions that help contextualize and generate accurate responses
    • Rephrasing
    • Hypothetical document embeddings
    • Sub-queries
  • Tweak retrieval strategies: Llama Index offers a range of retrieval strategies, from basic to advanced, to ensure accurate retrieval in RAG pipelines. By exploring these strategies, developers can improve the system’s ability to incorporate relevant information into the context for generating accurate responses.
    • Small-to-big sentence window retrieval,
    • recursive retrieval
    • semantic similarity scoring.
  • Hyperparameter tuning for chunk size and similarity_top_k: This solution involves adjusting the parameters of the retrieval process in RAG models. More specifically, we can tune the parameters related to chunk size and similarity_top_k.
    The chunk_size parameter determines the size of the text chunks used for retrieval, while similarity_top_k controls the number of similar chunks retrieved.
    By experimenting with different values for these parameters, developers can find the optimal balance between computational efficiency and the quality of retrieved information.
  • Reranking: Reranking retrieval results before they are sent to the language model has proven to improve RAG systems’ performance significantly.
    By retrieving more documents and using techniques like CohereRerank, which leverages a reranker to improve the ranking order of the retrieved documents, developers can ensure that the most relevant and accurate documents are considered for generating responses. This reranking process can be implemented by incorporating the reranker as a postprocessor in the RAG pipeline.

Challenge 2: Task-Based Retrieval

If you deploy a RAG-based service, you should expect anything from the users and you should not just limit your RAG in production applications to only be highly performant for question-answering tasks.

Users can ask a wide variety of questions. Naive RAG stacks can address queries about specific facts, such as details on a company’s Diversity & Inclusion efforts in 2023 or the narrator’s activities at Google.

However, questions may also seek summaries (“Provide a high-level overview of this document”) or comparisons (“Compare X and Y”).

Different retrieval methods may be necessary for these diverse use cases.

Proposed Solutions
  • Query Routing: This technique involves retaining the initial user query while identifying the appropriate subset of tools or sources that pertain to the query. By routing the query to the suitable options, routing ensures that the retrieval process is fine-tuned to the specific tools or sources that are most likely to yield accurate and relevant information.

Challenge 3: Optimize the Vector DB to look for correct documents

The problem in the retrieval stage of RAG is about ensuring the lookup to a vector database effectively retrieves accurate documents that are relevant to the user’s query.

Hereby, we must address the challenge of semantic matching by seeking documents and information that are not just keyword matches, but also conceptually aligned with the meaning embedded within the user query.

Proposed Solutions:
  • Hybrid Search:

Hybrid search tackles the challenge of optimal document lookup in vector databases. It combines semantic and keyword searches, ensuring retrieval of the most relevant documents.

  • Semantic Search: Goes beyond keywords, considering document meaning and context for accurate results.
  • Keyword Search: Excellent for queries with specific terms like product codes, jargon, or dates.

Hybrid search strikes a balance, offering a comprehensive and optimized retrieval process. Developers can further refine results by adjusting weighting between semantic and keyword search. This empowers vector databases to deliver highly relevant documents, streamlining document lookup.

Challenge 4: Chunking Large Datasets

When we put large amounts of data into a RAG-based product we eventually have to parse and then chunk the data because when we retrieve info – we can’t really retrieve a whole pdf – but different chunks of it.

However, this can present several pain points.

  • Loss of Context: One primary issue is the potential loss of context when breaking down large documents into smaller chunks. When documents are divided into smaller pieces, the nuances and connections between different sections of the document may be lost, leading to incomplete representations of the content.
  • Optimal Chunk Size: Determining the optimal chunk size becomes essential to balance capturing essential information without sacrificing speed. While larger chunks could capture more context, they introduce more noise and require additional processing time and computational costs. On the other hand, smaller chunks have less noise but may not fully capture the necessary context.

Read more: Optimize RAG efficiency with LlamaIndex: The perfect chunk size

Proposed Solutions:
  • Document Hierarchies: This is a pre-processing step where you can organize data in a structured manner to improve information retrieval by locating the most relevant chunks of text.
  • Knowledge Graphs: Representing related data through graphs, enabling easy and quick retrieval of related information and reducing hallucinations in RAG systems.
  • Sub-document Summary: Breaking down documents into smaller chunks and injecting summaries to improve RAG retrieval performance by providing global context awareness.
  • Parent Document Retrieval: Retrieving summaries and parent documents in a recursive manner to improve information retrieval and response generation in RAG systems.
  • RAPTOR: RAPTOR recursively embeds, clusters, and summarizes text chunks to construct a tree structure with varying summarization levels. Read more
  • Recursive Retrieval: Retrieval of summaries and parent documents in multiple iterations to improve performance and provide context-specific information in RAG systems.

Challenge 5: Retrieving Outdated Content from the Database

Imagine a RAG app working perfectly for 100 documents. But what if a document gets updated? The app might still use the old info (stored as an “embedding”) and give you answers based on that, even though it’s wrong.

Proposed Solutions:
  • Meta-Data Filtering: It’s like a label that tells the app if a document is new or changed. This way, the app can always use the latest and greatest information.

Stage 3: Generation

While the quality of the response generated largely depends on how good the retrieval of information was, there still are tons of aspects you must consider. After all, the quality of the response and the time it takes to generate the response directly impacts the satisfaction of your user.

RAG Pain Points - Generation Stage

Challenge 1: Optimized Response Time for User

The prompt response to user queries is vital for maintaining user engagement and satisfaction.

Proposed Solutions:
  1. Semantic Caching: Semantic caching addresses the challenge of optimizing response time by implementing a cache system to store and quickly retrieve pre-processed data and responses. It can be implemented at two key points in an RAG system to enhance speed:
    • Retrieval of Information: The first point where semantic caching can be implemented is in retrieving the information needed to construct the enriched prompt. This involves pre-processing and storing relevant data and knowledge sources that are frequently accessed by the RAG system.
    • Calling the LLM: By implementing a semantic cache system, the pre-processed data and responses from previous interactions can be stored. When similar queries are encountered, the system can quickly access these cached responses, leading to faster response generation.

Challenge 2: Inference Costs

The cost of inference for large language models (LLMs) is a major concern, especially when considering enterprise applications.

Some of the factors that contribute to the inference cost of LLMs include context window size, model size, and training data.

Proposed Solutions:

  1. Minimum viable model for your use case: Not all LLMs are created equal. There are models specifically designed for tasks like question answering, code generation, or text summarization. Choosing an LLM with expertise in your desired area can lead to better results and potentially lower inference costs because the model is already optimized for that type of work.
  2. Conservative Use of LLMs in Pipeline: By strategically deploying LLMs only in critical parts of the pipeline where their advanced capabilities are essential, you can minimize unnecessary computational expenditure. This selective use ensures that LLMs contribute value where they’re most needed, optimizing the balance between performance and cost.

Challenge 3: Data Security

The problem of data security in RAG systems refers to the concerns and challenges associated with ensuring the security and integrity of Language Models LLMs used in RAG applications. As LLMs become more powerful and widely used, there are ethical and privacy considerations that need to be addressed to protect sensitive information and prevent potential abuses.

These include:

    • Prompt injection
    • Sensitive information disclosure
    • Insecure outputs

Proposed Solutions: 

  1. Multi-tenancy: Multi-tenancy is like having separate, secure rooms for each user or group within a large language model system, ensuring that everyone’s data is private and safe.It makes sure that each user’s data is kept apart from others, protecting sensitive information from being seen or accessed by those who shouldn’t.By setting up specific permissions, it controls who can see or use certain data, keeping the wrong hands off of it. This setup not only keeps user information private and safe from misuse but also helps the LLM follow strict rules and guidelines about handling and protecting data.
  1. NeMo Guardrails: NeMo Guardrails is an open-source security toolset designed specifically for language models, including large language models. It offers a wide range of programmable guardrails that can be customized to control and guide LLM inputs and outputs, ensuring secure and responsible usage in RAG systems.

Ensuring the Practical Success of the RAG Framework

This article explored key pain points associated with RAG systems, ranging from missing content and incomplete responses to data ingestion scalability and LLM security. For each pain point, we discussed potential solutions, highlighting various techniques and tools that developers can leverage to optimize RAG system performance and ensure accurate, reliable, and secure responses.

By addressing these challenges, RAG systems can unlock their full potential and become a powerful tool for enhancing the accuracy and effectiveness of LLMs across various applications.

March 29, 2024

Welcome to the world of open-source (LLMs) large language models, where the future of technology meets community spirit. By breaking down the barriers of proprietary systems, open language models invite developers, researchers, and enthusiasts from around the globe to contribute to, modify, and improve upon the foundational models.

This collaborative spirit not only accelerates advancements in the field but also ensures that the benefits of AI technology are accessible to a broader audience. As we navigate through the intricacies of open-source language models, we’ll uncover the challenges and opportunities that come with adopting an open-source model, the ecosystems that support these endeavors, and the real-world applications that are transforming industries.

Benefits of open-source LLMs

As soon as ChatGPT was revealed, OpenAI’s GPT models quickly rose to prominence. However, businesses began to recognize the high costs associated with closed-source models, questioning the value of investing in large models that lacked specific knowledge about their operations.

In response, many opted for smaller open LLMs, utilizing Retriever-And-Generator (RAG) pipelines to integrate their data, achieving comparable or even superior efficiency.

There are several advantages to closed-source large language models worth considering.

Benefits of Open-Source large language models LLMs

  1. Cost-effectiveness:

Open-source Large Language Models (LLMs) present a cost-effective alternative to their proprietary counterparts, offering organizations a financially viable means to harness AI capabilities.

  • No licensing fees are required, significantly lowering initial and ongoing expenses.
  • Organizations can freely deploy these models, leading to direct cost reductions.
  • Open large language models allow for specific customization, enhancing efficiency without the need for vendor-specific customization services.
  1. Flexibility:

Companies are increasingly preferring the flexibility to switch between open and proprietary (closed) models to mitigate risks associated with relying solely on one type of model.

This flexibility is crucial because a model provider’s unexpected update or failure to keep the model current can negatively affect a company’s operations and customer experience.

Companies often lean towards open language models when they want more control over their data and the ability to fine-tune models for specific tasks using their data, making the model more effective for their unique needs.

  1. Data ownership and control:

Companies leveraging open-source language models gain significant control and ownership over their data, enhancing security and compliance through various mechanisms. Here’s a concise overview of the benefits and controls offered by using open large language models:

Data hosting control:

  • Choice of data hosting on-premises or with trusted cloud providers.
  • Crucial for protecting sensitive data and ensuring regulatory compliance.

Internal data processing:

  • Avoids sending sensitive data to external servers.
  • Reduces the risk of data breaches and enhances privacy.

Customizable data security features:

  • Flexibility to implement data anonymization and encryption.
  • Helps comply with data protection laws like GDPR and CCPA.

Transparency and audibility:

  • The open-source nature allows for code and process audits.
  • Ensures alignment with internal and external compliance standards.

Examples of enterprises leveraging open-source LLMs

Here are examples of how different companies around the globe have started leveraging open language models.

enterprises leveraging open-source LLMs in 2024

  1. VMWare

VMWare, a noted enterprise in the field of cloud computing and digitalization, has deployed an open language model called the HuggingFace StarCoder. Their motivation for using this model is to enhance the productivity of their developers by assisting them in generating code.

This strategic move suggests VMware’s priority for internal code security and the desire to host the model on their infrastructure. It contrasts with using an external system like Microsoft-owned GitHub’s Copilot, possibly due to sensitivities around their codebase and not wanting to give Microsoft access to it

  1. Brave

Brave, the security-focused web browser company, has deployed an open-source large language model called Mixtral 8x7B from Mistral AI for their conversational assistant named Leo, which aims to differentiate the company by emphasizing privacy.

Previously, Leo utilized the Llama 2 model, but Brave has since updated the assistant to default to the Mixtral 8x7B model. This move illustrates the company’s commitment to integrating open LLM technologies to maintain user privacy and enhance their browser’s functionality.

  1. Gab Wireless

Gab Wireless, the company focused on child-friendly mobile phone services, is using a suite of open-source models from Hugging Face to add a security layer to its messaging system. The aim is to screen the messages sent and received by children to ensure that no inappropriate content is involved in their communications. This usage of open language models helps Gab Wireless ensure safety and security in children’s interactions, particularly with individuals they do not know.

  1. IBM

IBM actively incorporates open models across various operational areas.

  • AskHR application: Utilizes IBM’s Watson Orchestration and open language models for efficient HR query resolution.
  • Consulting advantage tool: Features a “Library of Assistants” powered by IBM’s wasonx platform and open-source large language models, aiding consultants.
  • Marketing initiatives: Employs an LLM-driven application, integrated with Adobe Firefly, for innovative content and image generation in marketing.
  1. Intuit

Intuit, the company behind TurboTax, QuickBooks, and Mailchimp, has developed its language models incorporating open LLMs into the mix. These models are key components of Intuit Assist, a feature designed to help users with customer support, analysis, and completing various tasks. The company’s approach to building these large language models involves using open-source frameworks, augmented with Intuit’s unique, proprietary data.

  1. Shopify

Shopify has employed publically available language models in the form of Shopify Sidekick, an AI-powered tool that utilizes Llama 2. This tool assists small business owners with automating tasks related to managing their commerce websites. It can generate product descriptions, respond to customer inquiries, and create marketing content, thereby helping merchants save time and streamline their operations.

  1. LyRise

LyRise, a U.S.-based talent-matching startup, utilizes open language models by employing a chatbot built on Llama, which operates similarly to a human recruiter. This chatbot assists businesses in finding and hiring top AI and data talent, drawing from a pool of high-quality profiles in Africa across various industries.

  1. Niantic

Niantic, known for creating Pokémon Go, has integrated open-source large language models into its game through the new feature called Peridot. This feature uses Llama 2 to generate environment-specific reactions and animations for the pet characters, enhancing the gaming experience by making character interactions more dynamic and context-aware.

  1. Perplexity

Here’s how Perplexity leverages open-source LLMs

  • Response generation process:

When a user poses a question, Perplexity’s engine executes approximately six steps to craft a response. This process involves the use of multiple language models, showcasing the company’s commitment to delivering comprehensive and accurate answers.

In a crucial phase of response preparation, specifically the second-to-last step, Perplexity employs its own specially developed open-source language models. These models, which are enhancements of existing frameworks like Mistral and Llama, are tailored to succinctly summarize content relevant to the user’s inquiry.

The fine-tuning of these models is conducted on AWS Bedrock, emphasizing the choice of open models for greater customization and control. This strategy underlines Perplexity’s dedication to refining its technology to produce superior outcomes.

  • Partnership and API integration:

Expanding its technological reach, Perplexity has entered into a partnership with Rabbit to incorporate its open-source large language models into the R1, a compact AI device. This collaboration facilitated through an API, extends the application of Perplexity’s innovative models, marking a significant stride in practical AI deployment.

  1. CyberAgent

CyberAgent, a Japanese digital advertising firm, leverages open language models with its OpenCALM initiative, a customizable Japanese language model enhancing its AI-driven advertising services like Kiwami Prediction AI. By adopting an open-source approach, CyberAgent aims to encourage collaborative AI development and gain external insights, fostering AI advancements in Japan. Furthermore, a partnership with Dell Technologies has upgraded their server and GPU capabilities, significantly boosting model performance (up to 5.14 times faster), thereby streamlining service updates and enhancements for greater efficiency and cost-effectiveness.

Challenges of open-source LLMs

While open LLMs offer numerous benefits, there are substantial challenges that can plague the users.

  1. Customization necessity:

Open language models often come as general-purpose models, necessitating significant customization to align with an enterprise’s unique workflows and operational processes. This customization is crucial for the models to deliver value, requiring enterprises to invest in development resources to adapt these models to their specific needs.

  1. Support and governance:

Unlike proprietary models that offer dedicated support and clear governance structures, publically available large language models present challenges in managing support and ensuring proper governance. Enterprises must navigate these challenges by either developing internal expertise or engaging with the open-source community for support, which can vary in responsiveness and expertise.

  1. Reliability of techniques:

Techniques like Retrieval-Augmented Generation aim to enhance language models by incorporating proprietary data. However, these techniques are not foolproof and can sometimes introduce inaccuracies or inconsistencies, posing challenges in ensuring the reliability of the model outputs.

  1. Language support:

While proprietary models like GPT are known for their robust performance across various languages, open-source large language models may exhibit variable performance levels. This inconsistency can affect enterprises aiming to deploy language models in multilingual environments, necessitating additional effort to ensure adequate language support.

  1. Deployment complexity:

Deploying publically available language models, especially at scale, involves complex technical challenges. These range from infrastructure considerations to optimizing model performance, requiring significant technical expertise and resources to overcome.

  1. Uncertainty and risk:

Relying solely on one type of model, whether open or closed source, introduces risks such as the potential for unexpected updates by the provider that could affect model behavior or compliance with regulatory standards.

  1. Legal and ethical considerations:

Deploying LLMs entails navigating legal and ethical considerations, from ensuring compliance with data protection regulations to addressing the potential impact of AI on customer experiences. Enterprises must consider these factors to avoid legal repercussions and maintain trust with their users.

  1. Lack of public examples:

The scarcity of publicly available case studies on the deployment of publically available LLMs in enterprise settings makes it challenging for organizations to gauge the effectiveness and potential return on investment of these models in similar contexts.

Overall, while there are significant potential benefits to using publically available language models in enterprise settings, including cost savings and the flexibility to fine-tune models, addressing these challenges is critical for successful deployment

Embracing open-source LLMs: A path to innovation and flexibility

In conclusion, open-source language models represent a pivotal shift towards more accessible, customizable, and cost-effective AI solutions for enterprises. They offer a unique blend of benefits, including significant cost savings, enhanced data control, and the ability to tailor AI tools to specific business needs, while also presenting challenges such as the need for customization and navigating support complexities.

Through the collaborative efforts of the global open-source community and the innovative use of these models across various industries, enterprises are finding new ways to leverage AI for growth and efficiency.

However, success in this endeavor requires a strategic approach to overcome inherent challenges, ensuring that businesses can fully harness the potential of publically available LLMs to drive innovation and maintain a competitive edge in the fast-evolving digital landscape.

February 29, 2024

Large Language Models have surged in popularity due to their remarkable ability to understand, generate, and interact with human language with unprecedented accuracy and fluency.

This surge is largely attributed to advancements in machine learning and the vast increase in computational power, enabling these models to process and learn from billions of words and texts on the internet.

OpenAI significantly shaped the landscape of LLMs with the introduction of GPT-3.5, marking a pivotal moment in the field. Unlike its predecessors, GPT-3.5 was not fully open-source, giving rise to closed-source large language models.

This move was driven by considerations around control, quality, and the commercial potential of such powerful models. OpenAI’s approach showcased the potential for proprietary models to deliver cutting-edge AI capabilities while also igniting discussions about accessibility and innovation.

The introduction of open-source LLM 

Contrastingly, companies like Meta and Mistral have opted for a different approach by releasing models like LLaMA and Mistral as open-source.

These models not only challenge the dominance of closed-source models like GPT-3.5 but also fuel the ongoing debate over which approach—open-source or closed-source—yields better results. Read more

By making their models openly available, Meta and similar entities encourage widespread innovation, allowing researchers and developers to improve upon these models, which in turn, has seen them topping performance leaderboards.

From an enterprise standpoint, understanding the differences between open-source LLM and closed-source LLM is crucial. The choice between the two can significantly impact an organization’s ability to innovate, control costs, and tailor solutions to specific needs.

Let’s dig in to understand the difference between Open-Source LLM and Closed Source LLM

What are open-source large language models?

Open-source large language models, such as the ones offered by Meta AI, provide a foundational AI technology that can analyze and generate human-like text by learning from vast datasets consisting of various written materials.

As open-source software, these language models have their source code and underlying architecture publicly accessible, allowing developers, researchers, and enterprises to use, modify, and distribute them freely.

Let’s dig into different features of open-sourced large language models

1. Community contributions

  • Broad participation:

    Open-source projects allow anyone to contribute, from individual hobbyists to researchers and developers from various industries. This diversity in the contributor base brings a wide array of perspectives, skills, and needs into the project.

  • Innovation and problem-solving:

    Different contributors may identify unique problems or have innovative ideas for applications that the original developers hadn’t considered. For example, someone might improve the model’s performance on a specific language or dialect, develop a new method for reducing bias, or create tools that make the model more accessible to non-technical users.

2. Wide range of applications

  • Specialized use cases:

    Contributors often adapt and extend open-source models for specialized use cases. For instance, a developer might fine-tune a language model on legal documents to create a tool that assists in legal research or on medical literature to support healthcare professionals.

  • New features and enhancements:

    Through experimenting with the model, contributors might develop new features, such as more efficient training algorithms, novel ways to interpret the model’s outputs, or integration capabilities with other software tools.

3. Iterative improvement and evolution

  • Feedback loop:

    The open-source model encourages a cycle of continuous improvement. As the community uses and experiments with the model, they can identify shortcomings, bugs, or opportunities for enhancement. Contributions addressing these points can be merged back into the project, making the model more robust and versatile over time.

  • Collaboration and knowledge sharing:

    Open-source projects facilitate collaboration and knowledge sharing within the community. Contributions are often documented and discussed publicly, allowing others to learn from them, build upon them, and apply them in new contexts.

4. Examples of open-sourced large language models

What are closed-source large language models?

Closed-source large language models, such as GPT-3.5 by OpenAI, embody advanced AI technologies capable of analyzing and generating human-like text through learning from extensive datasets.

Unlike their open-source counterparts, the source code and architecture of closed-source language models are proprietary, accessible only under specific terms defined by their creators. This exclusivity allows for controlled development, distribution, and usage.

Features of closed-sourced large language models

1. Controlled quality and consistency

  • Centralized development: Closed-source projects are developed, maintained, and updated by a dedicated team, ensuring a consistent quality and direction of the project. This centralized approach facilitates the implementation of high standards and systematic updates.
  • Reliability and stability: With a focused team of developers, closed-source LLMs often offer greater reliability and stability, making them suitable for enterprise applications where consistency is critical.

2. Commercial support and innovation

  • Vendor support: Closed-source models come with professional support and services from the vendor, offering assistance for integration, troubleshooting, and optimization, which can be particularly valuable for businesses.
  • Proprietary innovations:  The controlled environment of closed-source development enables the introduction of unique, proprietary features and improvements, often driving forward the technology’s frontier in specialized applications.

3. Exclusive use and intellectual property

  • Competitive advantage: The proprietary nature of closed-source language models allows businesses to leverage advanced AI capabilities as a competitive advantage, without revealing the underlying technology to competitors.
  • Intellectual property protection: Closed-source licensing protects the intellectual property of the developers, ensuring that their innovations remain exclusive and commercially valuable.

4. Customization and integration

  • Tailored solutions: While customization in closed-source models is more restricted than in open-source alternatives, vendors often provide tailored solutions or allow certain levels of configuration to meet specific business needs.
  • Seamless integration: Closed-source large language models are designed to integrate smoothly with existing systems and software, providing a seamless experience for businesses and end-users.

Examples of closed-source large language Models

  1. GPT 3.5 by OpenAI
  2. Gemini by Google
  3. Claude by Anthropic


Read: Should Large Language Models be Open-Sourced? Stepping into the Biggest Debates


Open-source and closed-source language models for enterprise adoption:

Open-Source LLMs Vs Close-Source LLMs for enterprises


In terms of enterprise adoption, comparing open-source and closed-source large language models involves evaluating various factors such as costs, innovation pace, support, customization, and intellectual property rights. While I can’t directly access external sources like the VentureBeat article you mentioned, I can provide a general comparison based on known aspects of how enterprises use these models:


  • Open-Source: Generally offers lower initial costs since there are no licensing fees for the software itself. However, enterprises may incur costs related to infrastructure, development, and potentially higher operational costs due to the need for in-house expertise to customize, maintain, and update the models.
  • Closed-Source: Often involves licensing fees, subscription costs, or usage-based pricing, which can predictably scale with use. While the initial and ongoing costs can be higher, these models frequently come with vendor support, reducing the need for extensive in-house expertise and potentially lowering overall maintenance and operational costs.

Innovation and updates

  • Open-Source: The pace of innovation can be rapid, thanks to contributions from a diverse and global community. Enterprises can benefit from the continuous improvements and updates made by contributors. However, the direction of innovation may not always align with specific enterprise needs.
  • Closed-Source: Innovation is managed by the vendor, which can ensure that updates are consistent and high-quality. While the pace of innovation might be slower compared to the open-source community, it’s often more predictable and aligned with enterprise needs, especially for vendors closely working with their client base.

Support and reliability

  • Open-Source: Support primarily comes from the community, forums, and potentially from third-party vendors offering professional services. While there can be a wealth of shared knowledge, response times and the availability of help can vary.
  • Closed-Source: Typically comes with professional support from the vendor, including customer service, technical support, and even dedicated account management. This can ensure reliability and quick resolution of issues, which is crucial for enterprise applications.

Customization and flexibility

  • Open-Source: Offer high levels of customization and flexibility, allowing enterprises to modify the models to fit their specific needs. This can be particularly valuable for niche applications or when integrating the model into complex systems.
  • Closed-Source: Customization is usually more limited compared to open-source models. While some vendors offer customization options, changes are generally confined to the parameters and options provided by the vendor.

Intellectual property and competitive advantage

  • Open-Source: Using open-source models can complicate intellectual property (IP) considerations, especially if modifications are shared publicly. However, they allow enterprises to build proprietary solutions on top of open technologies, potentially offering a competitive advantage through innovation.
  • Closed-Source: The use of closed-source models clearly defines IP rights, with enterprises typically not owning the underlying technology. However, leveraging cutting-edge, proprietary models can provide a different type of competitive advantage through access to exclusive technologies.

Choosing Between Open-Source LLMs and Closed-Source LLMs

The choice between open-source and closed-source language models for enterprise adoption involves weighing these factors in the context of specific business objectives, resources, and strategic directions.

Open-source models can offer cost advantages, customization, and rapid innovation but require significant in-house expertise and management. Closed-source models provide predictability, support, and ease of use at a higher cost, potentially making them a more suitable choice for enterprises looking for ready-to-use, reliable AI solutions.

February 15, 2024